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Copado-Developer Copado Developer Certification

Exam Detail:
The Copado Developer Certification is a professional certification exam that validates the skills and knowledge of individuals in using the Copado DevOps platform for Salesforce development and release management. Here are the exam details for the Copado Developer Certification:

- Number of Questions: The exam typically consists of multiple-choice questions and hands-on exercises. The exact number of questions may vary, but typically, the exam includes around 60 to 80 questions.

- Time Limit: The time allocated to complete the exam is 90 minutes (1 hour and 30 minutes).

Course Outline:
The Copado Developer Certification course covers various topics related to Copado and Salesforce development practices. The course outline typically includes the following topics:

1. Introduction to Copado:
- Overview of Copado as a DevOps platform for Salesforce.
- Understanding the benefits and features of Copado for application lifecycle management.

2. Copado Fundamentals:
- Understanding the core concepts and components of Copado.
- Navigating the Copado user interface and workspace.
- Configuring and managing Copado environments and pipelines.

3. Version Control and Branching:
- Implementing version control using Copado Git repositories.
- Managing branches, commits, and merges in Copado.
- Working with Copado's branching strategies and best practices.

4. Continuous Integration:
- Configuring continuous integration (CI) jobs in Copado.
- Building and validating Salesforce metadata in the CI process.
- Setting up automated testing and quality checks in Copado.

5. Release Management:
- Creating release pipelines and defining release processes in Copado.
- Managing deployment flows, approvals, and rollbacks.
- Monitoring and tracking releases using Copado's release management features.

6. Compliance and Governance:
- Implementing compliance and governance practices in Copado.
- Managing security, access controls, and permissions in Copado.
- Auditing and tracking changes and activities in Copado.

Exam Objectives:
The objectives of the Copado Developer Certification exam are as follows:

- Assessing candidates' understanding of the Copado DevOps platform and its features.
- Evaluating candidates' knowledge of version control practices and branching strategies in Copado.
- Testing candidates' proficiency in configuring and managing continuous integration (CI) processes in Copado.
- Assessing candidates' skills in release management, including deployment flows and pipeline configurations in Copado.
- Evaluating candidates' knowledge of compliance and governance practices in Copado.

Exam Syllabus:
The specific exam syllabus for the Copado Developer Certification exam covers the following areas:

1. Copado Fundamentals: Understanding the core concepts and components of Copado.

2. Version Control and Branching: Implementing version control and branching strategies in Copado.

3. Continuous Integration: Configuring and managing continuous integration (CI) processes in Copado.

4. Release Management: Creating release pipelines and managing deployment flows in Copado.

5. Compliance and Governance: Implementing compliance and governance practices in Copado.
Copado Developer Certification
Copado Certification history

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Copado-Developer Copado Developer Certification
Copado-Robotic-Testing Copado Robotic Testing Certification

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Copado Developer Certification
Question: 26
Dave has set up the following connection behavior in INT:
He has created a new profile in dev1 and is going to commit it on a user story.
What will happen after he clicks on Submit Changes?
A . If the profile passes the compliance check, the user story will be displayed in the count of user stories ahead on the
Pipeline page and Dave will have to manually promote it from there by clicking on Promote & Deploy.
B . If the profile passes the compliance check, Copado will create a Promotion and a Deployment record and Dave will
need to click on Deploy from the Deployment record.
C . If the profile passes the compliance check, Copado will create a Promotion and a Deployment record and will
automatically deploy it to IN
E . If the profile passes the compliance check, Copado will create a Promotion and a Deployment record and Dave will
need to click on Promote & Deploy from the Deployment record.
Answer: C
Question: 27
After deleting a component in Dev1, Debbie has created a new user story to delete the component from the repository
and upper environments. She has refreshed the metadata index before selecting the component.
What can she do now in order to perform a destructive change commit of the component?
A . Change the org credential and the environment on the user story and find the component in another org.
B . Edit the metadata attachment on the user story and add the component.
C . Click on Revert Metadata Index to return to the previous status.
D . Use the Add Row button on the Commit Changes page and add the API name of the component.
Answer: A
Question: 28
To which of the following components does Copado apply the resolution strategy "branch A wins over branch B"?
Select all that apply!
A . Apex classes
B . Custom objects
C . Profiles
D . Layouts
Answer: A,D
Question: 29
You have a PMD static code analysis rule with priority 2. If this rule is violated once, what
will be the violation score?
A . 3
B . 4
C . 6
D . 2
Answer: B
Question: 30
Debbie has created a new custom field in Dev1. She commits it on a user story together with the permission set to
deploy FLS. After committing the changes, she realizes she forgot to grant the permission set access to the field in
Dev1, so she goes back to Dev1 and updates the FLS.
What is the easiest way to ensure the FLS is deployed to the next environment together with the field?
A . She can go back to the user story where she committed the changes and use the Recommit Files Git operation.
B . She needs to create a new user story and commit again the permission set.
C . She needs to delete the user story, create a new one and commit again the field and the permission set.
D . She needs to create a new user story and commit again the custom field.
Answer: A
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Copado Certification history - BingNews Search results Copado Certification history - BingNews Welcome to History

Native American peoples inhabited and visited the landscape encompassed within Wyoming for centuries prior to the founding of the University of Wyoming (UW) in 1887 and we would like to acknowledge the Arapaho, Cheyenne, Crow, Lakota, Shoshone, and Ute, on whose land we stand today.

Long committed to the history of the American West, the History Department at UW is uniquely positioned to situate this field in a global context. Drawing on expertise ranging from Europe, East and Central Asia, Africa, and the Americas, we strive to explore historical questions with thematic as well as comparative approaches. Our goal is to give students a truly global perspective on history.


 At the most basic level, history teaches how to assess evidence, to access conflicting interpretations, to arrive at convincing arguments, and to speak and write about these arguments to a wide variety of audiences. These skills make history one of the foremost majors that graduate and professional schools and employers seek when they admit graduate students or hire employees. Viewed from a practical perspective, a history degree provides lifelong skills that are in demand in fields ranging from teaching and law to government and business administration. History is a very useful degree.

History is a foundational discipline that blends the methodologies and perspective of the humanities and social sciences in order to engage with the history of human culture on a global scale. UW's History degree program emphasizes interdisciplinary teaching and research and provides course work, research experiences, and internships on both American and international topics. The History program offers a Bachelor of Arts degree major and minor, and a Master of Arts degree.


Who hasn’t heard someone say, “I just love history?” Maybe that person is you? History is a vibrant and fascinating study of people, events, and institutions in the past and, for many people, that’s reason enough to earn a history degree. But there are larger and more practical reasons to choose history as your major. Here are a few of those reasons that historian Peter Stearns complied for the American Historical Association:

  • History Helps Us Understand People and Societies
  • History Helps Us Understand Change
  • History Helps Us Understand How the Society We Live in Came to Be
  • History Provides Identity
  • Studying History Is Essential for Good Citizenship

In addition to the historical content obtained in your coursework, a degree in History also provides excellent training in rigorous analysis and research skills, and the oral and written skills necessary to achieve success in any top-flight professional career. Typical career paths for History graduates include work in museums and archives, national security agencies (the FBI, CIA, and NSA all love to recruit History B.A. students), and the Department of State. The History major is also excellent preparation for various professional schools, such as law and medicine, as well as post-graduate work in the humanities and social sciences.  We pride ourselves on placing our graduates in highly competitive careers and post-graduate masters and doctoral programs.


Bachelor's Degree (B.A.)

The History Department Faculty has identified the specific objectives of its undergraduate curriculum. The following are the learning outcomes that each History major should learn. We are continuously and actively assessing our program to ensure that these learning outcomes are being met.

1. Students shall be able to demonstrate critical thinking skills by analyzing, synthesizing, and evaluating historical information from multiple sources.

2. Students will develop the ability to distinguish between different culturally historical perspectives.

3. Students will produce well researched written work that engages with both primary sources and the secondary literature.

4. Students will develop an informed familiarity with multiple cultures.

5. Students will employ a full range of historical techniques and methods.

6. Students will develop an ability to convey verbally their historical knowledge.

7. Students will demonstrate their understanding of historical cause and effect along with their knowledge of the general chronology of human experience.

8. Students will develop an understanding of the concepts of historical theary and/or conceptual frameworks and be able to use these in their own studies. 


Graduate Degrees (M.A. and M.A.T.)

The History Department offers two distinct graduate programs. Any field of study offered by the Department can be accommodated within either degree program.

The M.A. degree is designed to prepare the student for employment opportunities and PhD-level work. This degree program is also suitable for students interested in careers as community college instructors as well as for lifelong learners who seek formal advanced education.


Students who graduate with an M.A. in History will be able to:

1. Demonstrate an understanding of the theories and methodologies of the discipline of History.

2. Demonstrate a critical understanding of the historiography of their field of specialization.

3. Demonstrate some understanding of comparative and/or thematic methods, approaches, and theories.

4. Conduct original research based on primary sources and construct an argument based on that research.

5. Write graduate-level expository prose and orally present their ideas at an advanced level.


The M.A.T. degree is designed to enhance the teaching of history and related disciplines by secondary and middle school teachers. This is a non-thesis degree, designed to provide breadth of preparation rather than specialization. Applicants are expected to have already completed their certification and pedagogy courses.

Students who graduate with an M.A.T. in History will be able to:

1. Demonstrate the significance of historical topics with reference to broader historical context, historiographic trends, or contemporary relevance.

2. Construct original historical arguments using a blend of primary and secondary source material.

3. Demonstrate a superior quality of writing both in terms of mechanics and in developing an argument effectively.

4. Convey a broad understanding of historical material suitable for teaching.

Thu, 10 Aug 2023 03:19:00 -0500 en text/html
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Mon, 31 Jul 2023 21:26:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Our History

The Smithsonian Institution was established with funds from James Smithson (1765–1829), a British scientist who left his estate to the United States to found “at Washington, under the name of the Smithsonian Institution, an establishment for the increase and diffusion of knowledge.” On August 10, 1846, the U.S. Senate passed the act organizing the Smithsonian Institution, which was signed into law by President James K. Polk.

Congress authorized acceptance of the Smithson bequest on July 1, 1836, but it took another ten years of debate before the Smithsonian was founded. Once established, the Smithsonian became part of the process of developing an American national identity—an identity rooted in exploration, innovation, and a unique American style. That process continues today as the Smithsonian looks toward the future.

James Smithson and the Founding of the Smithsonian

James Smithson
James Smithson, c. 1765-1829
Artist: Hattie Elizabeth Burdette

Smithson, the illegitimate child of a wealthy Englishman, had traveled much during his life, but had never once set foot on American soil. Why, then, would he decide to give the entirety of his sizable estate—which totaled half a million dollars, or 1/66 of the United States' entire federal budget at the time—to a country that was foreign to him?

Some speculate it was because he was denied his father's legacy. Others argue that he was inspired by the United States' experiment with democracy. Some attribute his philanthropy to ideals inspired by such organizations as the Royal Institution, which was dedicated to using scientific knowledge to improve human conditions. Smithson never wrote about or discussed his bequest with friends or colleagues, so we are left to speculate on the ideals and motivations of a gift that has had such significant impact on the arts, humanities, and sciences in the United States.

Visitors can pay homage to Smithson with a visit to his crypt, located on the first floor of the Smithsonian Castle.

Learn more about James Smithson »

Smithsonian Institution General History

James Polk
James Knox Polk, 2 Nov 1795-15 Jun 1849
Artist: Max Westfield

Smithson died in 1829, and six years later, President Andrew Jackson announced the bequest to Congress. On July 1, 1836, Congress accepted the legacy bequeathed to the nation and pledged the faith of the United States to the charitable trust. In September 1838, Smithson's legacy, which amounted to more than 100,000 gold sovereigns, was delivered to the mint at Philadelphia. Recoined in U.S. currency, the gift amounted to more than $500,000.

After eight years of sometimes heated debate, an Act of Congress signed by President James K. Polk on Aug. 10, 1846, established the Smithsonian Institution as a trust to be administered by a Board of Regents and a Secretary of the Smithsonian. Since its founding, more than 175 years ago, the Smithsonian has become the world's largest museum, education, and research complex, with 21 museums, the National Zoo, and nine research facilities.

Learn more about our history from Smithsonian Institution Archives »

Architectural History & Historic Preservation Division »

Wed, 22 Feb 2023 02:11:00 -0600 en text/html How To Get PMP Certification: Is PMP Certification Worth It?

Editorial Note: We earn a commission from partner links on Forbes Advisor. Commissions do not affect our editors' opinions or evaluations.

Project Management Professional (PMP)® certification can make you stand out against the competition in the field of project management. If you’ve wondered how to get PMP certification, know that you must first complete work experience, training courses and an exam.

But is PMP certification worth it? In this article, we’ll explore what it takes to get certified, how much you might have to pay and how PMP certification can help you level up your project management career.

What Is PMP Certification?

Professional certifications verify your career skills and allow you to learn more about important concepts and industry best practices that can help in your day-to-day operations.

PMP certification is the most widely recognized in the world of project management. It’s available through the Project Management Institute (PMI), which publishes the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK). The PMBOK is the Holy Grail of knowledge when it comes to project management concepts.

PMP certification demonstrates a strong understanding of the concepts set forth in the PMBOK and other reference materials. This designation can help you distinguish yourself from your peers and gain respected credentials in your field. Along the way, you’ll learn about concepts like Agile, waterfall project scheduling, leadership and business management.

How to Sign Up for PMP Certification

The first step to earning PMP certification is to begin work in the field of project management. PMP certification requires months of work experience. Precise requirements vary depending on your level of education. If you have a bachelor’s degree, you’ll need 36 months of relevant project experience to qualify for the PMP credential. Without a degree, you must complete 60 months of experience.

If you have this work experience or are working toward it, the next step is to complete at least 35 hours of formal PMP training, also called “contact hours,” or hold a current CAPM certification. You can complete contact hours through a PMP certification course, which you may take online or in person. These courses take a few weeks to a few months to complete, and they teach the concepts you should understand before taking the PMP certification exam.

Below, we’ll discuss how to get a PMP certification in more detail, including prerequisites and PMP exam costs.

PMP Certification Requirements

You must accomplish a certain amount of professional experience and formal training before you qualify for PMP certification.

If you have completed high school or an associate degree but not a bachelor’s, PMP certification requirements are as follows.

  • 60 months leading projects
  • 35 contact hours

If you have a bachelor’s degree, you must complete the following before pursuing PMP certification.

  • 36 months leading projects
  • 35 contact hours

PMP Cost

Most PMP certification training programs (through which you can earn your contact hours) range in cost from around $300 to around $3,000. Courses offered through well-known colleges and universities tend to cost more, but many also offer for-credit programs that result in undergraduate or graduate certificates. Consider a program that holds GAC accreditation when searching for courses. Free PMP certification training is available through some resources, but usually only for short trial periods.

To sit for the exam, the cost is $405 for PMI members or $575 for nonmembers.

PMP Time Commitment

How long does it take to get PMP certification? The most time-consuming part of the PMP certification process is completing the required work experience. Start documenting your work experience as soon as you consider applying for PMP certification. Once you get that experience under your belt, the rest of the certification process involves studying and scheduling your test. The time spent on this step can vary depending on your schedule and study habits, location and testing center availability.

Most PMP certification training courses take only a few weeks to a few months to complete. After that, it’s up to you how much time you spend studying for the certification exam. Retakes cost $275 for PMI members and $375 for nonmembers, so it’s best to go into the exam as prepared as possible.

PMP Renewal Costs

Once you’ve passed the PMP exam, you must complete a certain level of continuing education to keep your certification active. The renewal fee, due every three years, is $60 for PMI members or $150 for nonmembers.

Is PMP Certification Worth It?

To determine whether PMP certification is worth it to you, weigh the costs of certification against the potential benefits. Since we’ve listed the costs of PMP certification above, you likely have a good idea of the investment you’d need to make to get certified. Now, it’s time to consider your potential return on that investment.

Benefits of PMP certification

  • Salary increase. PMPs in the U.S. earn about 32% more than their non-certified peers in project management.
  • Greater respect in the industry. The Project Management Institute is the leading organization for project management knowledge and the publisher of the PMBOK. Earning PMP certification through PMI carries lots of weight in the project management industry.
  • Greater career opportunities. Holding PMP certification should make you more marketable when it comes to looking for better or different positions in project management.

Consider Your Career

Are you looking to make a career change? Move into a higher role in your current team? In either case, PMP certification could be just what you need to level up your career. As part of the certification process, you’ll learn industry best practices that you can start incorporating into your day-to-day work life immediately.

Look at Earning Potential vs. Certification Cost

According to PMI, PMP-certified professionals in the U.S. earn a median annual salary of $123,000, compared to a median of $93,000 for their non-certified colleagues. This translates to a 32% salary increase for certified PMPs.

Multiply your current salary by 1.32 to estimate your potential PMP certification salary. You can then weigh that salary increase against the cost of PMP certification training and the PMP exam. This cost vs. benefit analysis can help you understand whether PMP certification would be worth it for you.

Mon, 11 Dec 2023 23:13:00 -0600 Christin Perry en-US text/html
A Forgotten Chapter of Abortion History Repeats Itself

Much of the country no doubt watched in amazement last week as a woman with a doomed pregnancy was forced to flee her home state, Texas, to get the abortion her doctors deemed necessary to protect her future ability to bear children. Could this really be happening in the United States in 2023?

But then, should anyone who has followed the recent dystopian course of abortion in America have been surprised? After all, on the other side of the half-century during which abortion was a constitutional right, something eerily similar had happened in an episode that shocked the country when abortion was a subject not discussed in polite society.

It was 1962, and Sherri Chessen Finkbine, a 29-year-old mother of four and host of a popular children’s television program in Phoenix, was pregnant again. Suffering from morning sickness, she tried some pills, marketed in Europe as a sleeping aid, that her husband had brought back from a trip to London. Only after having taken multiple doses did she read about an outbreak in Europe of devastating birth defects in babies born to women who had used a drug called thalidomide. Her doctor confirmed that thalidomide was what she had taken.

The doctor recommended a “therapeutic” abortion and arranged for one to be performed quietly at a Phoenix hospital. Ms. Chessen — the media called her by her husband’s last name, Finkbine, but she had always preferred Chessen — felt obliged to warn other women who might unknowingly be facing the same situation. She talked to The Arizona Republic’s medical editor, who granted her anonymity. But her name became known, and in part because of her prominence — she was Miss Sherri of the popular “Romper Room” — the story exploded. The hospital declined to go ahead with the scheduled procedure and, with abortion illegal in every state, there was no place in the country she could go.

She and her husband, a public-school teacher, went to Sweden for the abortion. By that time, she was 13 weeks pregnant. When they got back to Phoenix, she lost her job, and her husband was suspended from his teaching post.

Ms. Chessen’s trauma 61 years ago was even more jarring than Kate Cox’s was this month, because a subject largely hidden from public view was suddenly national news. I still remember, as a 15-year-old, being mesmerized by Life magazine’s extended account that covered not only Ms. Chessen’s experience but the abortion issue itself; included in the coverage were wrenching photographs of surviving “thalidomide babies” missing arms or legs or both.

Her story brought the once forbidden topic into the country’s living rooms in the most sympathetic light imaginable. “Her wholesome image clashed so dramatically with the public’s concept of abortion — the lawless choice of wayward women — that her decision to go through with the procedure sparked a heated national debate,” Jennifer Vanderbes writes in a new book, “Wonder Drug: The Secret History of Thalidomide in America and Its Hidden Victims.”

Although Ms. Chessen received plenty of hate mail, along with condemnation by the Vatican, a Gallup poll found that a majority of Americans thought she had made the right decision. It’s possible to see the episode as a spark that helped ignite the abortion reform movement that culminated in Roe v. Wade 11 years later. “Here is a need for common sense,” The Tulsa Tribune wrote in an editorial.

I first got in touch with Ms. Chessen in 2009, when Reva Siegel, a law professor at Yale, and I were compiling material for a documentary history of how abortion was discussed and debated before the 1973 decision. In an archive at the Schlesinger Library at the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, I found the text of a talk Ms. Chessen gave in 1966 about her experience.

“We tried so desperately to do what was right, yet thousands of people sought to judge for us,” she said in her talk.

Holding the document in my hands, I felt a sense of wonder that such a thing could have happened in my lifetime and relief that it would never happen to another woman. I found a phone number and called Ms. Chessen to get permission to reprint the talk. We included the text in our book, “Before Roe v. Wade.”

Sherri Chessen is now 91 years old. After her abortion, she went on to have two more children, including a daughter named Kristin Atwell Ford, an award-winning filmmaker who is making a documentary about her mother. In later years, Ms. Chessen wrote and published children’s books. She lives on her own in Southern California. When I called her the other day, it was as if she had been waiting to be asked how she felt about the replay of the long-ago chapter of her long life.

“I’m losing my patience!” she exclaimed. “I have a newfound fire that wants to clobber all those idiots. When will they ever learn?”

Is “never” the inevitable answer? When I talk to student groups and others about the history of abortion, I’m no longer surprised to find how few have ever heard of Sherri Chessen and her flight to Sweden. That is unfortunate, because her story provides essential context for understanding what Texas — its politicians and its judges — did to Kate Cox this month. Those of us who are old enough to remember Sherri Chessen’s story, and who assumed it could never happen again, have now seen it happen, on our watch. If her experience lit a spark in 1962, Kate Cox’s experience should ignite a fire in 2024.

Thu, 21 Dec 2023 10:00:00 -0600 en text/html
Certificate vs. Certification: What’s The Difference?

Editorial Note: We earn a commission from partner links on Forbes Advisor. Commissions do not affect our editors' opinions or evaluations.

Though many people use the terms interchangeably, certificates and certifications are not the same. Understanding the differences between certificates and certifications is helpful for all students. Comparing the two can be useful when browsing prospective programs and job requirements.

Pursuing a certificate or certification can be advantageous in the workplace, especially when it comes to increasing your salary and building your expertise. It’s important to know where your current employment status and your future goals lie when comparing certificate and certification programs.

What Is a Certificate?

A certificate is granted after completing an academic program of study. Certificates can be beneficial for individuals who are both early on in their careers and at more advanced stages, as the goal of a certificate is to acquire new and more specialized knowledge.

Sometimes categorized as continuing education or professional development, certificates are available in a variety of disciplines at most colleges and universities.

When Would You Earn a Certificate?

That’s up to you. Some mid-career professionals pursue certificates to enhance or acquire high-demand skills in the workplace. Other individuals who are seeking to change their careers or pivot into new roles might benefit from certificate programs to gain better knowledge of industry trends.

For those interested in graduate school, the knowledge gained in a certificate program can be a valuable prerequisite. This is especially the case if you earned your degrees in subject areas that are unrelated to your career pursuits.

It’s never too late—or too early—to earn a certificate. If it works with your budget and aligns with your aspirations, a certificate program might be a great next step toward shifting your career, accomplishing a professional milestone or getting a head start on a new degree.

How Is a Certificate Different From a Degree?

A certificate program is not the same as a degree program, though you can complete both at a college or university.

Usually requiring fewer credits than an associate degree, a certificate program involves a series of courses exploring the subject matter in a particular area of study. While a certificate might be an added bonus to your resume, it does not hold the same weight as a bachelor’s degree, which is a common requirement for many jobs.

Examples of Certificates

Certificates are widely available at most colleges and universities, though not all schools offer certificates in the same academic areas.

If you’re looking to earn a certificate in a particular area, try browsing by field. For example, the following institutions each offer a certificate program in graphic design:

Note that each program has its own timeline and unique set of courses. The time needed to complete a certificate will depend on the credit requirements of your selected institution.

What Is a Certification?

A certification is a professional credential that is earned through a professional training program or assessment. Completing a certification indicates a certain level of training or expertise in a given field.

When Would You Earn a Certification?

Certifications bring a number of advantages and benefits, including increased pay, potential promotions and professional expertise. Depending on your line of work, some companies may even cover the cost of a certification, as these credentials can bring value to the workplace.

Current job-seekers may need to explore certification programs, as these credentials are sometimes required for a role. For professionals who are already employed, a certification might still be necessary for upward mobility in their industry.

How Is a Certification Different From a Degree?

Professional organizations issue certifications through their provided training programs, while colleges and universities typically offer accredited degree programs. Certifications can be offered alongside or within academic studies, but it’s important to note that a certification is not a degree.

It should be noted that licensures, which are required by law for particular jobs—for example, psychologists and other therapeutic roles—are also distinct from professional certifications.

Examples of Certifications

Professional certifications provide cutting-edge training and best practices for individuals looking to get ahead in their organizations or fields. Available in virtually every industry, some examples include the following.

Frequently Asked Questions About Certificates

Is certification the same as a degree?

No. Certification is the result of completing a professional training program that enhances your existing skills or provides additional training in a given field. A certification program may entail continuing education units, similar to credits in a degree program.

Should I put certificates on my resume?

Absolutely. A completed certificate indicates content mastery and academic knowledge. If you’re applying for a different role or hoping to pivot into a new industry, a certificate in a given area may help you stand out in the candidate pool.

Should I put certifications on my email signature?

Yes. Certifications are professional credentials that indicate progress in your career. You can earn a certification after successfully completing extensive, industry-specific training. Some roles require specific certifications.

Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:33:00 -0600 Ian Callahan en-US text/html
The History of SNHU

Founded in 1932, Southern New Hampshire University (SNHU) began as a two-room business school above a nondescript storefront in downtown Manchester, NH. Originally named the New Hampshire Accounting and Secretarial School, the tiny enterprise enrolled fewer than 10 day students and 35 evening students in bookkeeping, accounting, and secretarial courses. 

The school’s founder, Harry Alfred Benjamin “H.A.B.” Shapiro, started the program to teach bookkeepers the underlying theory behind the tasks they performed day in and day out. Shapiro believed passionately in the value of knowing the “why” of accounting and not just the “how.” 

Establishing a Flexible Format

When the school first opened its doors, it offered one-year courses that qualified graduates for entry-level positions as secretaries, bookkeepers, and junior accountants. Students with higher aspirations could take a second year. 

The program appealed to both traditional college-aged students and working adults. Students could begin coursework on any Monday of the year, in a day or night class, and would advance to a higher-level course only after mastering a subject. The flexible format was well received, because it opened up educational opportunities to students unable to attend traditional day classes. Students also appreciated learning from college-educated faculty with workplace experience, a rarity in higher education at the time.  

Expanding Access for Service Members

In 1941, after the United States entered World War II, the school shifted its focus to supporting the needs of service members. The first program for active-duty personnel taught military clerical skills to 25 servicemen stationed at the Manchester Air Base (now the Manchester-Boston Regional Airport). The servicemen took typing, business English, and business math courses in downtown Manchester during the day, resuming their military studies on base in the evenings. 

The school also began accepting disabled veterans in federal and state vocational training programs and participating in bond drives to raise money for the war effort. In the 1960s, the school expanded educational opportunity to military personnel by offering innovative 8-week courses on military bases across New England and Puerto Rico. 

A Period of Growth and Change

Growth was minimal but meaningful into the early 1960s, until the college earned its accreditation and degree-granting authority under its new name: New Hampshire College of Accounting and Commerce. The name was later shortened to New Hampshire College, after the school became a nonprofit institution. 

Then, in just eight years, from 1961 to 1969, enrollment catapulted from 96 day students to 920. 

The college rented as much space as possible in its downtown Manchester location, but by 1971 it had outgrown the space. That year, to accommodate the spike in the student population, New Hampshire College resettled in its current location, a 300-acre campus on Manchester’s Merrimack River. 

On Campus, Online, On a Roll

At its new campus location, New Hampshire College continued to expand its academic offerings throughout the 1980s and 1990s, adding bachelor’s and master’s programs to meet emerging workforce needs. 

The mid-1990s saw a period of rapid growth. In 1995, New Hampshire College launched its Internet-based distance learning program (now known as “SNHU Online”). In 1997, the institution unveiled a one-of-a-kind three-year bachelor’s degree in business administration. In 1998, it launched its first doctoral program. 

The distance learning program featured many benefits of modern online education, including 24-hour access to course materials and use of online bulletin boards for discussion. The program expanded rapidly, with 8,000 enrollments in 23 time zones within just six years. By 2002, members of the U.S. Armed Forces made up 40% of online enrollees. 

In the midst of it all, a wave of campus expansion began. The college added several facilities to the community, including academic centers, office space, and residence halls. The campus expansion and program development led to a significant moment in the institution’s history when New Hampshire College became Southern New Hampshire University in 2001. By then, the school was offering a broad range of academic disciplines and degree programs, as well as the services and facilities needed to support a diverse student and alumni population. 

In 2013, SNHU expanded access to higher education with the launch of College for America (CfA). Made possible with support from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the Lumina Foundation, CfA leveraged SNHU partnerships to introduce competency-based education (CBE) to students for whom education is not a guarantee.  

Our CBE pathways were further expanded with the launch of the Global Education Movement (GEM) in 2017. GEM became the first large-scale online learning initiative for refugees, partnering with in-country organizations to deliver high-quality, low-cost education tailored to meet the needs of displaced learners. 

Campus construction continued over the years, with the campus expanding from a handful of buildings in 1971 to more than 40. Today, with over 180,000 students and 250 programs, available online and on campus, SNHU is widely recognized as one of the nation’s most innovative organizations and fastest-growing universities. 

Sun, 23 Jul 2023 07:12:00 -0500 en text/html
Black History Month: What is it and why does it matter?

By Adina CampbellCommunity affairs correspondent, BBC News

Celebrations in June 2023 marked the 75th anniversary of the arrival HMT Empire Windrush, which brought migrants from the Caribbean to the UK

October marks Black History Month in the UK.

The event began in the US in the 1920s, and was first celebrated in the UK in 1987.

It also takes place in Canada, Germany and Ireland.

When is Black History Month and what is it?

In the UK, Black History Month happens every October.

It gives everyone the opportunity to share, celebrate and understand the impact of black heritage and culture.

People from African and Caribbean backgrounds have been a fundamental part of British history for centuries. However, campaigners believe their contribution to society has often been overlooked or distorted.

Greater attention has been paid to the importance of the Windrush generation and the Black Lives Matter movement in recent years, especially since the 2020 death of unarmed African American man George Floyd.

How did Black History Month start?

The event was the brainchild of Carter G Woodson, known as the father of black history.

Born in Virginia in 1875 to parents who were former slaves, he had limited access to education and job opportunities. But he was able to study at one of the few high schools for black students after saving money earned by working as a coal miner.

Carter G Woodson launched the first Black History Week in 1926

Woodson went on to gain various qualifications, including a PhD in history from Harvard University, and became a professor at Howard University.

Throughout his life, he worked tirelessly to promote black history in schools.

In 1926 he launched the first Black History Week, set in February to coincide with the births of former President Abraham Lincoln and Frederick Douglass. Both men played a significant role in helping to end slavery.

The event was expanded in 1970, and since 1976 every US president has officially designated February as Black History Month.

A separate holiday - "Juneteenth", held on 19 June - commemorates the end of slavery in the US.

How did Black History Month start in the UK?

The first Black History Month in the UK took place in 1987, the 150th anniversary of the abolition of slavery in the Caribbean.

It was arranged by Akyaaba Addai-Sebo, who came to the UK from Ghana as a refugee in 1984. Like Woodson before him, he wanted to challenge racism and celebrate the history of black people.

October was chosen partly because it's traditionally a time when African leaders gather to talk about important issues, and partly because it was at the start of the school year.

How is Black History Month celebrated in the UK?

When Black History Month first began, there was a big focus on black American history. Over time the event has prioritised black British history and key black figures from the UK, such as:

  • Walter Tull, the first black officer to command white troops in the British Army, and one of English football's first black players
  • Malorie Blackman, bestselling author and the first black Children's Laureate
  • Shirley J Thompson, leading composer and conductor
  • Lewis Hamilton, the only black driver in Formula One
Shirley J Thompson composed music for King Charles's coronation

Black History Month is also celebrated in local communities, where museums, care homes and workplaces explore a broad range of topics, from Britain's colonial past to migration and music.

For 2023, people are being encouraged to find out more about the exceptional achievements of black women, especially those who have been forgotten.

There is a national poetry competition, open to primary, secondary, college, and university students across the UK.

The contribution of the Windrush generation is also being celebrated, 75 years after the arrival of passengers on HMT Empire Windrush to the UK.

Other events include:

Is black history taught in schools?

For many children in the UK, October is the only time of the year they will learn about black history.

Wales became the first nation in the UK to introduce mandatory changes to its curriculum in 2022, including lessons about black history, racism and contributions of figures from black, Asian and other ethnic minorities.

Walter Tull played for Tottenham Hotspurs and Northampton Town before he died on the battlefields of World War One

Education is a devolved issue and in England there are no such plans to make changes.

The UK government says black history is an important topic, and that schools have the freedom to teach it within the existing history curriculum, from primary-school age onwards.

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Sat, 28 Oct 2023 08:12:00 -0500 text/html Undergraduate Teacher Certification Requirements

Undergraduate Teacher Certification Requirements

Drexel offers a number of education certification and degree programs that prepare students for formal teacher certification. Once a student has successfully completed their undegraduate course of study and all qualifying teacher certification exams required by the Pennsylvania Department of Education (PDE), Drexel recommends the student to the PDE for the appropriate teaching certificate.

Teaching Certification GPA Requirements

The School of Education requires that students maintain at least a "B" average (3.0 GPA) in content courses needed for teacher certification in addition to earning a grade of "B" or better in each core pedagogy course required for certification.

Pennsylvania Teacher Certification Requirements

All undergraduate students are required to obtain and submit updated and current copies of the required clearances to the School of Education annually in order to participate in classroom observations and student teaching in Pennsylvania. All full-time undergraduates will receive assistance in gaining these clearances during their first term. Non-PA students should contact their state's department of education or school district office for a list of clearances required in their state.

Teacher Certification Process

Instructional I Certification

This initial certification qualifies a teacher to teach for a maximum of six years. The six years need not be continuous. To continue teaching after the six years are completed, the teacher must receive an Instructional II Certification.

Instructional II Certification

The Instructional II Certification is considered a permanent certification. A teacher applying for Instructional II Certification must have:

  • Instructional I Certification
  • A minimum of three years and a maximum of six years of teaching experience on an Instructional I Teaching Certificate
  • 24 semester-hour (or 36 quarter-hour) credits beyond a bachelor’ degree
  • Completion of an induction program (generally provided by the teacher’ school of employment)

Elementary Certification (Grades PreK–4) and Special Education Certification (Grades PreK–8 and Grades 7–12)

The Pennsylvania Educator Certification Tests (PECT) are required for Grades PreK–4 and Special Education. All undergraduate and dual degree BS/MS students are required to pass the Pre-service Academic Performance Assessment (PAPA) basic skills exam. In addition, students will be required to take the appropriate assessment exam for each area of certification they wish to obtain.

For more information about examinations and registration:

Middle Level Certification (Grades 4–8) and Secondary Certification (Grades 7–12)

All undergraduate and dual degree BS/MS students seeking certification in middle (grades 4–8) or secondary (grades 7–12) levels are required to pass exams from the PA Education Certification Tests (PECT) and the Praxis II Series. Students must pass both the Pre-service Academic Performance Assessment (PAPA) basic skills assessment exam and the appropriate Praxis II Content Knowledge test for each area of certification they wish to obtain.

For more information about examinations and registration:

Pennsylvania Act 48 Requirements

To maintain Instructional I and Instructional II Certifications, the PDE requires a teacher to complete one of the following every five years:

  • Six semester-hour (or nine quarter-hour) credits. Credits must be acquired from an accredited, four-year, degree-granting college or university.
  • 180 hours of professional development
  • A combination of credits and professional development hours every five years.

Note: For those working to acquire Instructional II Certification, the 24 semester credits or 36 quarter credits needed to apply for Instructional II may also count toward Act 48 requirements.

Download the Pennsylvania Department of Education’s Frequently Asked Questions about Act 48 [PDF].

Mon, 27 Mar 2023 02:53:00 -0500 en text/html
Department of History

Saint Louis University Department of History

From double majors to doctorates, the Department of History at Saint Louis University teaches students the values and skills of the liberal arts to prepare them for whatever career they choose.

Our undergraduates have a keen talent for science, technology, math and languages, but they also want to graduate with a deep cultural context about the global world. Our talented graduate students are committed to becoming experts in their areas, whether in the United States., Africa, Asia, the Middle East or Europe. Our medieval history program is one of the most successful Ph.D. programs nationally. All our students work with a team of distinguished faculty, whose research intersects with some of the most interesting topics in the news: from religious identity to immigration.

At every level, our students leave with skills that open doors to employment. There are Saint Louis University History graduates in the public and private sectors — from Google to the Pentagon.

History Degree Programs

Facts & Figures


total undergraduate enrollment


student-faculty ratio


average high school GPA

Fri, 27 Oct 2023 02:16:00 -0500 en text/html

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