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CTFL_Foundation approach - ISTQB Certified Tester Foundation Level Updated: 2024

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Exam Code: CTFL_Foundation ISTQB Certified Tester Foundation Level approach January 2024 by team

CTFL_Foundation ISTQB Certified Tester Foundation Level

ISTQB has recently launched CTFL 2018 V3.1 with minor changes. You can find all the info needed in the download area.

The Foundation Level Syllabus forms the basis for the International Software Testing Qualification at the Foundation Level.

The International Software Testing Qualifications Board® (ISTQB®) provides it to the national examination bodies for them to accredit the training providers and to derive examination questions in their local language.

Training providers will produce courseware and determine appropriate teaching methods for accreditation, and the syllabus will help candidates in their preparation for the examination.

The Certified Tester Foundation Level in Software Testing

The Foundation Level qualification is aimed at anyone involved in software testing. This includes people in roles such as testers, test analysts, test engineers, test consultants, test managers, user acceptance testers and software developers.

This Foundation Level qualification is also appropriate for anyone who wants a basic understanding of software testing, such as project managers, quality managers, software development managers, business analysts, IT directors and management consultants. Holders of the Foundation Certificate will be able to go on to a higher level software testing qualification.

Fundamentals of Testing

Learning Objectives for Fundamentals of Testing:

- What is Testing?

- Identify typical objectives of testing

- Differentiate testing from debugging

- Why is Testing Necessary?

- Give examples of why testing is necessary

- Describe the relationship between testing and quality assurance and give examples of how testing contributes to higher quality

- Distinguish between error, defect, and failure

- Distinguish between the root cause of a defect and its effects

- Seven Testing Principles

- Explain the seven testing principles

- Test Process

- Explain the impact of context on the test process

- Describe the test activities and respective tasks within the test process

- Differentiate the work products that support the test process

- Explain the value of maintaining traceability between the test basis and test work products

- The Psychology of Testing

- Identify the psychological factors that influence the success of testing

- Explain the difference between the mindset required for test activities and the mindset required for development activities


coverage, debugging, defect, error, failure, quality, quality assurance, root cause, test analysis, test basis,
test case, test completion, test condition, test control, test data, test design, test execution,
test implementation, test monitoring, test object, test objective, test oracle, test planning, test procedure,
test process, test suite, testing, testware, traceability, validation, verification

Testing Throughout the Software Development Lifecycle

Learning Objectives for Testing Throughout the Software Development Lifecycle

- Software Development Lifecycle Models

- Explain the relationships between software development activities and test activities in the software development lifecycle

- Identify reasons why software development lifecycle models must be adapted to the context of project and product characteristics

- Test Levels

- Compare the different test levels from the perspective of objectives, test basis, test objects, typical defects and failures, and approaches and responsibilities

- Test Types

- Compare functional, non-functional, and white-box testing

- Recognize that functional, non-functional, and white-box tests occur at any test level

- Compare the purposes of confirmation testing and regression testing

- Maintenance Testing

- Summarize triggers for maintenance testing

- Describe the role of impact analysis in maintenance testing


acceptance testing, alpha testing, beta testing, change-related testing, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS),
component integration testing, component testing, confirmation testing, contractual acceptance testing,
functional testing, impact analysis, integration testing, maintenance testing, non-functional testing,
operational acceptance testing, regression testing, regulatory acceptance testing, sequential development
model, system integration testing, system testing, test basis, test case, test environment, test level, test
object, test objective, test type, user acceptance testing, white-box testing

Static Testing

Learning Objectives for Static Testing

- Static Testing Basics

- Recognize types of software work product that can be examined by the different static testing techniques

- Use examples to describe the value of static testing

- Explain the difference between static and dynamic techniques, considering objectives, types of defects to be identified, and the role of these techniques within the software lifecycle

- Review Process

- Summarize the activities of the work product review process

- Recognize the different roles and responsibilities in a formal review

- Explain the differences between different review types: informal review, walkthrough, technical review, and inspection

- Apply a review technique to a work product to find defects

- Explain the factors that contribute to a successful review


ad hoc review, checklist-based review, dynamic testing, formal review, informal review, inspection,
perspective-based reading, review, role-based review, scenario-based review, static analysis, static
testing, technical review, walkthrough

Test Techniques

Learning Objectives for Test Techniques

- Categories of Test Techniques

- Explain the characteristics, commonalities, and differences between black-box test techniques, white-box test techniques, and experience-based test techniques

- Black-box Test Techniques

- Apply equivalence partitioning to derive test cases from given requirements

- Apply boundary value analysis to derive test cases from given requirements

- Apply decision table testing to derive test cases from given requirements

- Apply state transition testing to derive test cases from given requirements

- Explain how to derive test cases from a use case

- White-box Test Techniques

- Explain statement coverage

- Explain decision coverage

- Explain the value of statement and decision coverage

- Experience-based Test Techniques

- Explain error guessing

- Explain exploratory testing

- Explain checklist-based testing


black-box test technique, boundary value analysis, checklist-based testing, coverage, decision coverage,
decision table testing, error guessing, equivalence partitioning, experience-based test technique,
exploratory testing, state transition testing, statement coverage, test technique, use case testing, whitebox test technique

Test Management

Learning Objectives for Test Management

- Test Organization

- Explain the benefits and drawbacks of independent testing

- Identify the tasks of a test manager and tester

- Test Planning and Estimation

- Summarize the purpose and content of a test plan

- Differentiate between various test strategies

- Give examples of potential entry and exit criteria

- Apply knowledge of prioritization, and technical and logical dependencies, to schedule test execution for a given set of test cases

- Identify factors that influence the effort related to testing

- Explain the difference between two estimation techniques: the metrics-based technique and the expert-based technique

- Test Monitoring and Control

- Recall metrics used for testing

- Summarize the purposes, contents, and audiences for test reports

- Configuration Management

- Summarize how configuration management supports testing

- Risks and Testing

- Define risk level by using likelihood and impact

- Distinguish between project and product risks

- Describe, by using examples, how product risk analysis may influence the thoroughness and scope of testing

- ement

- Write a defect report, covering a defect found during testing


configuration management, defect management, defect report, entry criteria, exit criteria, product risk,
project risk, risk, risk level, risk-based testing, test approach, test control, test estimation, test manager,
test monitoring, test plan, test planning, test progress report, test strategy, test summary report, tester

Tool Support for Testing

Learning Objectives for Test Tools

- Test tool considerations

- Classify test tools according to their purpose and the test activities they support

- Identify benefits and risks of test automation

- Remember special considerations for test execution and test management tools

- Effective use of tools

- Identify the main principles for selecting a tool

- Recall the objectives for using pilot projects to introduce tools

- Identify the success factors for evaluation, implementation, deployment, and on-going support of test tools in an organization


data-driven testing, keyword-driven testing, test automation, test execution tool, test management tool
ISTQB Certified Tester Foundation Level
iSQI Foundation approach

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ISTQB Certified Tester Foundation Level
Question: 324
The decision table above reflects a golf club's pricing structure for green fees and
buggy/cart hire. What is the expected result (actions) for each of the following two test
cases (TC1 and TC2)?
* TC 1 - Paul is not a full member, is a Loyalty Card holder and requests to play 18
holes with a buggy/cart
* TC 2 - Cheryl is not at full member, doesn't have a Loyalty Card and requests to play 9
holes with a buggy/cart
A. TC1 - 23 total charges including buggy hire; TC2 - 21 total charge including buggy
B. TC1 - 18 total charges including buggy hire; TC2 - 16 total charge but no buggy
C. TC1 - 23 total charges including buggy hire; TC2 - 16 total charge but no buggy
D. TC1 - 17 total charges but no buggy allowed; TC2 - 21 total charge including
buggy hire
Answer: D
Question: 325
A system requirement states that up to 100 users should be able to carry out a
transaction, with responses returned within 5 seconds. What type of non-functional
testing would you carry out to verify these requirements?
A. Stress testing
B. Maintenance testing
C. Load testing
D. Usability testing
Answer: B
Question: 326
Which one of the following statements about testing techniques is TRUE?
A. Exploratory testing can replace black box techniques when testing time is very
B. Test execution scheduling should give priority to experienced based testing
C. Specification based techniques can be used as a substitute for a poorly defined test
D. Experienced based techniques are systematic and produce detailed test
Answer: A
Question: 327
Debugging and Testing are key activities in the software development lifecycle. Which
of the following are 'Debugging' activities?
a) Identifying, a failure
b) Locating the cause of failure
c) Fixing the defect
d) Checking the fix has resolved the failure
A. a & d
B. a & b
C. b & c
D. c & d
Answer: A
Question: 328
When considering the roles of test leader and tester, which of the following tasks would
NOT typically be performed by a tester?
A. Prepare and acquire the test data
B. Set up and check the test environment
C. Write test summary reports
D. Review tests developed by others
Answer: D
Question: 329
Which of the following would you NOT expect to see on an incident report from test
A. The version(s) of the software under test
B. The test execution schedule
C. Expected results and actual results
D. Precise steps to reproduce the problem
Answer: D
Question: 330
Which of the following is a Black Box test design technique?
A. Decision Coverage
B. Error Guessing
C. Statement Coverage
D. Equivalence Partitioning
Answer: D
Question: 331
Which of the following is a defect that is more likely to be found by a static analysis tool
than by other testing techniques?
A. Omission of a major requirement
B. Inadequate decision coverage
C. Component memory leakage
D. Variables that are not used improperly declared
Answer: D
Question: 332
A garden irrigation system allows the user to specify 2 inputs:
1. Frequency - The number of times the system should be automatically switched on per
day; minimum once per day, maximum 5 times
2. Duration - The duration of operation, in whole minutes, each time it is switched on;
ranging from 1 to 60 Applying 2-value boundary value analysis which of the following
options has the correct test set of valid and invalid boundary values?
A. Frequency 1, 5; Duration 1, 60
B. Frequency 0, 1, 5, 6; Duration 59 seconds, 1 minute, 60 minutes, 60 minutes 1 second
C. Frequency 0, 1, 5, 6; Duration 0, 1, 30, 60, 61
D. Frequency 0, 1, 2, 5, 6; Duration 0, 1, 30, 60, 61
Answer: B
Question: 333
When can functional and structural testing BOTH be applied?
A. System and Component test levels only
B. All 'Developement' test levels, i.e. those before Acceptance testing
C. Component and Component integration test levels only
D. All test levels
Answer: D
Question: 334
Which of the following is a white-box test technique?
A. Decision table testing
B. Exploratory testing
C. Statement testing
D. Error guessing
Answer: C
Question: 335
Which of the following would NOT be a common metric used for monitoring test
preparation and execution?
A. Number of Test cases passed and failed
B. Percentage of planned test cases designed
C. Number of test plan review comments
D. Percentage of tasks complete in test environment preparation
Answer: D
Question: 336
Which of the following would be a good test technique to use when under severe time
A. Exploratory testing
B. Structure based testing
C. Specification based testing
D. Use Case testing
Answer: B
Question: 337
You have been asked to improve the way test automation tools are being used in your
company. Which one of the following is the BEST approach?
A. Selecting and automating scripts that test new functionality to find the most defects
B. Using a keyword-driven testing approach to separate the actions and data from the
tool's script
C. Ensuring that all data, inputs and actions are stored in the tool's script for ease of
D. Keeping expected results separate from the automation tool to allow the testers to
check the results
Answer: A
Question: 338
During the development of a software change for a system, the developer makes a
mistake in his work, which leads to a fault in the code. Unfortunately the fault is not
found by software testing and is released into live. What is the definite consequence of
this mistake?
A. The system will fail, causing a defect
B. If the defect is executed, the system may fail
C. Loss of money, time, or business reputation
D. Contractual requirements have not been met by testing
Answer: B
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iSQI Foundation approach - BingNews Search results iSQI Foundation approach - BingNews Quarterly Grant Program No result found, try new keyword!Grants will be given in this area to organizations and programs which deliver impact in one or more of the following ways: The Foundation will collaborate with organizations that can help build a ... Fri, 12 Mar 2021 04:54:00 -0600 How To Build A Cybersecurity Strategy For 2017

Technology changes faster than most business can keep up with. The proliferation of mobile technology, the Internet of Things (IoT) and cloud computing has changed the types of “assets” connected to networks. Implementing cybersecurity “best practices” across an increasingly unstructured and decentralized network is one of the most vexing challenges facing companies today.

Traditional cybersecurity approaches revolved around the medieval concept of “protecting the crown jewels” – a concentric circle view of layered security focused on protecting the important data at the center through successive layers of defenses such as application, host-based, network (internal and external perimeter) and physical controls. This defensive strategy works in a centralized, controlled and managed-device network, which is becoming increasingly extinct.

Companies have the most control over devices that they purchase, configure and issue to users. But as consumer-driven technology drives new devices and systems, organizations are losing control over devices their users and network interacts with.

For example, with IoT devices it isn’t possible to change or install software. In an enterprise context, IoT includes medical devices in hospitals or monitoring devices deployed in manufacturing or agriculture. This technology is particularly attractive for these traditionally unconnected industries as it offers new leaps into interconnected systems and monitoring what was once impractical due to safety or geographical reasons.

The question then becomes how to apply “best practices” to this new ecosystem? Organizations need to rethink how they view capabilities in terms of security controls. Companies need to reevaluate and establish the context of the users and actions taken on their systems. And, most importantly, businesses need to challenge themselves through constant improvement that provides the necessary feedback loop to make real changes.

Companies can address current network challenges with a future-proof cybersecurity strategy for 2017 and beyond by integrating the following concepts into their near-term plans.

Build your foundation. Approach your security capabilities from a device-level, bottom-up perspective instead of the centrally-controlled, top-down view. Security capabilities have not dramatically changed — traditional controls such as firewalls, intrusion prevention systems (IPS) and two-factor authentication (2FA) remain relevant. It’s the application of these controls that needs to be re-applied depending on the context of the device or node.

Context is king. Context helps a company understand what a device is, whether it can be trusted, and how the network can interact with it. The more control over the device, the higher ability you have to interrogate it and establish context. When you have more control over your nodes, you can establish paths of access and consider devices more trusted. But if you have less control, you can only observe behavior.

For IoT devices, which offer the least control, consider the larger “ring-fence” approach. Drawing a perimeter around devices that require access to similar resources can help categorize their abilities, even though the devices cannot ultimately be controlled. Context is not about getting all the available data, but getting the right data.

Play offense and defense. Consistently challenge your organization through proactive testing, often referred to as “red team, blue team exercises.” Develop a continual feedback process between these teams to test your assumptions and prioritize or close each discovered attack avenue. Through exercises such as penetration tests and threat modeling, a red team will pinpoint residual and unaddressed attack vectors as well as assist in remediation efforts. Your defensive side blue team can help improve on what was previously missed, increase available information over time, and develop metrics to demonstrate improvement.

In this rapidly changing technology landscape, the mindful decentralization of your organization’s security controls becomes an asset. It’s security by (known) obscurity, where the obscurity is only seen as such by external entities and attackers. What could resemble an unraveling of controls transforms into a stronger web of both traditional and new technical capabilities. This allows for a more customized approach to security in the face of new technologies and more vectors over which you have less control.

Tue, 14 Feb 2017 03:46:00 -0600 Christie Terrill en text/html
Columbus Blue Jackets Foundation

The fight against pediatric cancer has been one of the Blue Jackets Foundation's primary areas of focus since the team's inception in 2000. Hats For Heroes and additional fundraising programs have raised more than $4 million to fund a variety of support programs for pediatric cancer patients and their families, including therapy through distraction, critical research projects and assistance in providing palliative care for youth.

Mon, 17 Aug 2020 20:24:00 -0500 en text/html
WORLD Film Explores the Personal Approach to Reparations

The new film The Cost of Inheritance weighs in on one of the nation’s most divisive but essential topics — reparations — but doesn’t mention government solutions. Instead, it introduces viewers to descendants of slave owners and enslaved persons and profiles their complicated, intertwined histories and their quests to seek repair together. 

The Cost of Inheritance, which also explores the ripple effects of the racial wealth gap, will debut on GBH 2 as an America ReFramed special on January 8 at 10pm and launch on WORLD on January 15, Martin Luther King Jr. Day. 

“This film elevates reparations from being a political issue to being a human issue,” said WORLD Executive Producer Chris Hastings. “The film isn’t about what the government should do — it’s the story of personal accountability. I think it starts the process of healing something that we haven’t reckoned with.” 

Directed and produced by Emmy® nominee and Peabody Award–winner Yoruba Richen, the film features insights from experts, activists and historians; archival material; and personal stories from communities that are launching grassroots initiatives to redress economic inequalities that stem from racial injustice. 

One story in the film is Lotte Lieb Dula’s, a White woman who discovered an old family journal that contained a list of Black enslaved people listed by name, age and value. 

“There were 44 souls listed in this ledger,” she says in the film. “If our family enslaved others, I’ve got some repair work I’ve got to do.” She went on to co-found Reparations4Slavery with Briayna Cuffie, an African American. 

“I hope viewers will be surprised at the balance and truth-telling that emerges in this film,” said Emmy© Award–winning Executive Producer Darryl Ford Williams, former vice president of content for WQED-Pittsburgh. She also produced PBS’s Harbor from the Holocaust, which told the story of European Jews who fled Nazi persecution and sought refuge in Shanghai. 

The new film is a natural fit for America ReFramed, which has featured the award-winning Buffalo Soldiers: Fighting on Two Fronts and Fannie Lou Hamer’s America, said Hastings. 

“At WORLD we work really hard to find those relevant, important stories from independent, often marginalized filmmakers, who don’t have the infrastructure available that more established producers do,” he said. “We want to accelerate them and move them to the next level.” 

Making the human connection is essential when addressing issues like reparations, said Ford Williams. 

“Storytelling is at the heart of any compelling social narrative,” she said. “You can talk about any issue with experts and at meetings, but until you start telling personal stories, you don’t get to the ’why should I care?’ connection.” 

She hopes the film paves the way for more understanding and conversations between White and Black Americans. “The divide between us as Americans is so fraught with so many issues with so much complexity. If we don’t examine this issue, the rest of our issues are in large part compounded,” she said. 

Hastings agrees. “I hope this film gets people talking. I think the problem with race in America today is we don’t talk enough. We yell. And that just makes us more divided.” 

The film doesn’t advocate for any position or opinion, said Ford Williams. Instead, it presents a nuanced view of the key issues and scope and rationale of the reparations debate from a number of perspectives. 

“I hope viewers come away understanding that reparations can take many forms, not necessarily in the form of money,” she said. “There are many aspects to reparations, but they all begin with truth. They all begin with acknowledgement.” 

And they all begin with relationships and ending the silence.

Mon, 01 Jan 2024 10:00:00 -0600 en text/html
Huntsman Cancer Foundation

Huntsman Cancer Foundation (HCF) was founded by the Jon and Karen Huntsman family in 1995. HCF’s singular mission is to guarantee the future of cutting-edge research at Huntsman Cancer Institute. Thanks to the support of our community of donors and fundraisers, advancements at Huntsman Cancer Institute pave the way for new clinical trials, safer and more effective treatments, and hope for an end to cancer

By funding efforts to understand the beginnings of cancer better and more effectively treat cancer, you help relieve suffering and improve the quality of life for cancer patients, survivors, and their families.

To stay in touch, sign up for our e-newsletter, Headlines for Hope.

Tue, 08 Jun 2021 20:29:00 -0500 en text/html
The University of Wyoming Foundation

UW Giving Day

UW Giving Day Reaches More Donors Than Ever Before

The University of Wyoming’s 2023 Giving Day was a huge success -- in just 24 hours, reaching almost double the donors of last year and raising $3.6 million that goes directly to students and the faculty and programs that support them.

UW Giving Day, spearheaded by the UW Foundation, took place Oct. 25-26, noon to noon, on social media and across campus. This year, a record 8,978 donors from all 50 states and 13 countries gave a total of $3,605,192 to support students, faculty and organizations across campus. The theme was Make My Day, which encouraged UW supporters to make someone’s day by showing their philanthropic spirit. 

Read more ...

Thu, 10 Aug 2023 02:48:00 -0500 en text/html
The Tax Foundation

Fact-checking journalism is the heart of PolitiFact. Our core principles are independence, transparency, fairness, thorough reporting and clear writing. The reason we publish is to give citizens the information they need to govern themselves in a democracy.

Sat, 27 Oct 2012 19:57:00 -0500 en-US text/html
The Guardian Foundation

Our purpose is to promote global press freedom and access to liberal journalism. As a charity, we work with journalists, news organisations audiences and educators, in schools and across communities. Our work drives forward the vision of a world where people have access to reliable information, from a diverse range of sources, strengthening their ability to hold power to account.

Sun, 02 Aug 2020 02:48:00 -0500 en text/html
Boston Bruins Foundation

Since inception in 2003, the Boston Bruins Foundation has raised over $62 million through various events and community initiatives. During the 2022-23 season, the Foundation raised $7.3 million, donating $3.7 million to non-profit organizations across New England. In celebration of 20 years of impact, the Boston Bruins Foundation will donate $50,000 to a minimum 20 charities and will celebrate it's 20th Anniversary on March 19, 2024 at the Bruins vs. Senators game, which will highlight the rich 20-year history of the Foundation, featuring charities, partners and supporters who have impacted the Foundation throughout the years.

Fri, 29 Dec 2023 10:00:00 -0600 en text/html
Lakers Youth Foundation

To date, LYF has funded a school teaching garden, 3 STEM Lab Projects, 15 Reading and Learning Centers, and 40+ basketball courts throughout Los Angeles and Hawaii. The team has also contributed millions of dollars through ticket donations, autographed memorabilia, Lakers merchandise, and countless appearances made by current players, Lakers Legends and the Laker Girls. 

Sun, 01 May 2011 23:59:00 -0500 en text/html

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