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Fundamentals of Business Economics
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CIMAPRA17-BA1-1-ENG
Fundamentals of Business Economics
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Question: 90
A business would benefit most from an appreciation in the currency of the country in which it is based if:
A . it exports to other countries a significant proportion of its output
B . it imports a high proportion of the raw materials and components it uses
C . in its domestic market it faces competition from imports
D . its production costs are largely domestic labor costs
Answer: B
Question: 91
All of the following could cause the onset of a recession except which one?
A . A significant appreciation of the exchange rate
B . A decline in business investment
C . A significant fall in personal savings rates
D . An increase in the government budget deficit
Answer: C
Question: 92
All of the following items would appear as a credit on the current account of a country’s balance of payments accounts
except which one?
A . Interest payments on financial assets held overseas.
B . Exports of manufactured goods.
C . Outflows of capital.
D . Expenditure by visiting foreign tourists.
Answer: C
Question: 93
When the economy is in recession, which of the following is least likely to reduce unemployment?
A . An expansionary fiscal policy
B . The central bank cutting interest rates
C . Retraining schemes for redundant workers
D . A regulation extending employment rights for newly-hired workers
Answer: D
Question: 94
All of the following would lead to fall in the circular flow of national income except which one ?
A . A fall in business investment
B . A fall in personal savings rates
C . A reduction in the level of government expenditure
D . A rise in the marginal propensity to save
Answer: D
Question: 95
The imposition of a tariff on imported goods by a country’s government will result in all of the following except one.
Which ONE is the exception?
A . A shift in domestic income from consumers to producers of the goods
B . A rise in the domestic price of the imported good
C . Greater cost push inflationary pressure in the economy
D . A shift to the left in the demand curve for the imported good
Answer: D
Question: 96
Which global financial institution is responsible for providing stabilization funding to assist developed and developing
countries with short term borrowing needs and needs for foreign currency?
A . The IMF
B . The World Bank
C . The World Trade Organization
D . The G20
Answer: A
Question: 97
Which of the following statements about supply-side economics is correct?
A . Supply-side policies are part of aggregate demand management policies.
B . Fiscal policy cannot be used as a part of supply-side policy
C . Supply-side economists always reject the use of policy to expand demand
D . Supply-side policies are used to improve the economy’s efficiency and competitiveness
Answer: D
Question: 98
If an economy went into a recession, which industry would experience the largest proportionate fall in sales, output
and employment?
A . Retail supermarkets
B . Food processing industry
C . Petrol retailing
D . Luxury good manufacturers
Answer: D
Question: 99
All of the following are regarded as objectives of profit seeking organizations except one.
Which ONE is the exception?
A . Raising shareholder wealth
B . Long term growth in sales
C . Meeting regulatory, accounting and reporting standards
D . Maximizing profit
Answer: C
Question: 100
Select the best definition of a regressive tax from the options below:
A . A tax which rises proportionately with income
B . A tax which rises more than proportionately with income
C . A tax which rises less than proportionately with income
D . A tax on expenditure
Answer: C
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CIMA Fundamentals answers - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/CIMAPRA17-BA1-1-ENG Search results CIMA Fundamentals answers - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/CIMAPRA17-BA1-1-ENG https://killexams.com/exam_list/CIMA Closed-End Fundamentals: 5 Answers to Key Questions

Closed-end funds (CEFs) may be one of the best-kept secrets of the investing world. In a 2018 Forbes Insights survey of more than 1,000 investors, the majority reported that their advisors never discussed CEFs and less than 9% reported owning one. This may be a missed opportunity for both investors and advisors, since most investors also said it’s valuable when advisors suggest investments they haven’t considered.

Like their better-known, open-end cousins, CEFs offer instant diversification and relatively high liquidity. There are both CEFs and open-end mutual funds available for a wide variety of asset classes and investment strategies. The big difference? CEFs typically offer higher income.

Open-end funds must create new shares every time a shareholder invests. And when shareholders sell their shares, managers must have cash on hand to buy back the shares at their current net asset value. As a result, managers may end up scrambling to invest large inflows or selling off assets at unattractive prices to meet redemptions.

Closed-end funds raise capital through an initial public offering (IPO) and the shares then trade on an exchange, like a stock. (After the IPO, a CEF doesn’t issue more shares—hence it’s “closed”). Because the funds aren’t issuing or redeeming shares, they have a relatively stable asset base, enabling managers to focus on strategy and remain fully invested throughout market cycles.

Unlike open-end mutual funds, CEFs can employ leverage—and 72% of them do. And a more stable asset base provides CEF managers with greater freedom to invest in less liquid, potentially higher-yielding assets.

CEFs are designed to provide consistent and predictable distributions, and many of them deliver on that promise.

Like open-end mutual funds, CEFs carry risks associated with their underlying investments. In addition, CEFs can use leverage, which increases their volatility. Both gains and losses are amplified.

Yet research from Nuveen shows that over longer periods—three to five years, for instance—leverage has historically delivered incremental income that has more than compensated for the associated cost and added volatility. Thus, CEFs tend to reward longer-term investors.

CEFs often appeal to investors who are nearing retirement and “seeking income and cash flow to maintain their lifestyle,” says David Lamb, managing director in Nuveen’s Global Products Group.

But more than half of CEF holders are under age 60, according to a Forbes Insights survey of financial advisors. Because CEFs offer portfolios in many of the same asset classes as open-end funds, they may be a smart choice for an investor who wants to boost income while maintaining portfolio diversification.

Many of the criteria advisors use to choose a CEF are similar to what’s considered when selecting an open-end fund, such as manager quality and expense levels, says Lamb. But many CEF investors are seeking high and predictable income, so they pay close attention to whether the distribution rate appears sustainable.

*Source: Morningstar, Bloomberg, as of 12/31/2018. Past performance does not guarantee future results. The hypothetical example above is for illustrative purposes only, and is not intended to represent the results of any Nuveen closed-end fund. Other methods and market conditions may result in significantly different outcomes. A closed-end fund’s use of leverage creates the possibility of higher volatility for the fund’s per share net asset value (NAV), market price, distributions and returns. There is no assurance that a fund’s leveraging strategy will be successful. This illustration uses the Bloomberg Barclays Municipal Bond Index as a proxy for the hypothetical investment portfolios; the SIFMA Municipal Swap Index, which began in July 1989, only as a proxy for the hypothetical leveraged portfolio’s cost of leverage; and a 35% leverage ratio for the hypothetical leveraged portfolio. The returns shown assume reinvestment of dividends and do not reflect any applicable sales charges. It is not possible to invest directly in an index.


Nuveen Securities, LLC, member FINRA and SIPC


EWB-950432PR-Y0919X

Tue, 17 Sep 2019 12:00:00 -0500 Nuveen Insights Contributor en text/html https://www.forbes.com/sites/insights-nuveen/2019/09/18/closed-end-fundamentals-5-answers-to-key-questions/
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Thu, 14 Dec 2023 23:21:00 -0600 Matthew Frankel, CFP en text/html https://www.fool.com/investing/how-to-invest/
Fundamentals of Soil Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) AY-238


AY-238

Soils (Fertility)

Purdue University
Cooperative Extension Service
West Lafayette, IN 47907






David B. Mengel, Department of Agronomy, Purdue University


Soils can be thought of as storehouses for plant nutrients. Many nutrients, such as calcium and magnesium, may be supplied to plants solely from reserves held in the soil. Others like potassium are added regularly to soils as fertilizer for the purpose of being withdrawn as needed by crops. The relative ability of soils to store one particular group of nutrients, the cations, is referred to as cation exchange capacity or CEC.

Soils are composed of a mixture of sand, silt, clay and organic matter. Both the clay and organic matter particles have a net negative charge. Thus, these negatively-charged soil particles will attract and hold positively-charged particles, much like the opposite poles of a magnet attract each other. By the same token, they will repel other negatively-charged particles, as like poles of a magnet repel each other.

Forms of Nutrient Elements in Soils

Elements having an electrical charge are called ions. Positively-charged ions are cations; negatively-charged ones are anions.

The most common soil cations (including their chemical symbol and charge) are: calcium (Ca++), magnesium (Mg++), potassium (K+), ammonium (NH4+), hydrogen (H+) and sodium (Na+). Notice that some cations have more than one positive charge.

Common soil anions (with their symbol and charge) include: chlorine (Cl-), nitrate (NO3-), sulfate (S04=) and phosphate (PO43-). Note also that anions can have more than one negative charge and may be combinations of elements with oxygen.

Defining Cation Exchange Capacity

Cations held on the clay and organic matter particles in soils can be replaced by other cations; thus, they are exchangeable. For instance, potassium can be replaced by cations such as calcium or hydrogen, and vice versa.

The total number of cations a soil can hold--or its total negative charge--is the soil's cation exchange capacity. The higher the CEC, the higher the negative charge and the more cations that can be held.

CEC is measured in millequivalents per 100 grams of soil (meq/100g). A meq is the number of ions which total a specific quantity of electrical charges. In the case of potassium (K+), for example, a meq of K ions is approximately 6 x 1020 positive charges. With calcium, on the other hand, a meq of Ca++ is also 6 x 1020 positive charges, but only 3 x 1020 ions because each Ca ion has two positive charges.

Following are the common soil nutrient cations and the amounts in pounds per acre that equal 1 meq/100g:


  Calcium (Ca++)    -  400 lb./acre
  Magnesium (Mg++)  -  240 lb./acre
  Potassium (K+)       780 lb./acre
  Ammonium (NH4+)   -  360 lb./acre

Measuring Cation Exchange Capacity

Since a soil's CEC comes from the clay and organic matter present, it can be estimated from soil texture and color. Table 1 lists some soil groups based on color and texture, representative soil series in each group, and common CEC value measures on these soils.

Table 1. Normal Range of CEC Values for Common Color/Texture Soil Groups.


                                        CEC in
  Soil groups              Examples       meg/100g
-----------------------------------------------
Light colored sands       Plainfield         3-5
                          Bloomfield

Dark colored sands        Maumee           10-20
                          Gilford

Light colored loams and   Clermont-Miami   10-20
 silt loams               Miami

Dark colored loams and    Sidell           15-25
 silt loams               Gennesee

Dark colored silty clay   Pewamo           30-40
 loams and silty clays    Hoytville

Organic soils             Carlisle muck   50-100
-------------------------------------------------

Cation exchange capacity is usually measured in soil testing labs by one of two methods. The direct method is to replace the normal mixture of cations on the exchange sites with a single cation such as ammonium (NH4+), to replace that exchangeable NH4+ with another cation, and then to measure the amount of NH4+ exchanged (which was how much the soil had held).

More commonly. the soil testing labs estimate CEC by summing the calcium, magnesium and potassium measured in the soil testing procedure with an estimate of exchangeable hydrogen obtained from the buffer pH. Generally, CEC values arrived at by this summation method will be slightly lower than those obtained by direct measures.

Buffer Capacity and Percent Base Saturation

Cations on the soil's exchange sites serve as a source of resupply for those in soil water which were removed by plant roots or lost through leaching. The higher the CEC, the more cations which can be supplied. This is called the soil's buffer capacity.

Cations can be classified as either acidic (acid- forming) or basic. The common acidic cations are hydrogen and aluminum; common basic ones are calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium. The proportion of acids and bases on the CEC is called the percent base saturation and can be calculated as follows:


           Total meq of bases on exchange sites

 Pct. base =(i.e., meq Ca++ meq Mg++ +  meq K+)
 saturation  ------------------------------- x 100
                 Cation exchange capacity

The concept of base saturation is important, because the relative proportion of acids and bases on the exchange sites determines a soil's pH. As the number of Ca++ and Mg++ions decreases and the number of H+ and Al+++ions increases, the pH drops. Adding limestone replaces acidic hydrogen and aluminum cations with basic calcium and magnesium cations, which increases the base saturation and raises the pH.

In the case of Midwestern soils, the actual mix of cations found on the exchange sites can vary markedly. On most, however, Ca++ and Mg++ are the dominant basic cations and are in greater concentrations than K+. Normally, very little sodium is found in Midwestern soils.

Relationship Between CEC and Fertilization Practices

Recommended liming and fertilization practices will vary for soils with widely differing cation exchange capacities. For instance, soils having a high CEC and high buffer capacity change pH much more slowly under normal management than low-CEC soils. Therefore, high-CEC soils generally do not need to be limed as frequently as low-CEC soils; but when they do become acid and require liming, higher lime rates are needed to reach optimum pH.

CEC can also influence when and how often nitrogen and potassium fertilizers can be applied. On low-CEC soils (less than 5 meg/20000g), for example, some leaching of cations can occur. Fall applications of ammonium N and potassium on these soils could result in some leaching below the root zone, particularly in the case of sandy soils with low-CEC subsoils. Thus, spring fertilizer application may mean improved production efficiency. Also, multi-year potash applications are not recommended on low-CEC soils.

Higher-CEC soils (greater than 10 meg/100g), on the other hand, experience little cation leaching, thus making fall application of N and K a realistic alternative. Applying potassium for two crops can also be done effectively on these soils. Thus, other factors such as drainage will have a greater effect on the fertility management practices used on high- CEC soils.

Summary

The cation exchange capacity of a soil determines the number of positively-charged ions cations-that the soil can hold. This, in turn, can have a significant effect on the fertility management of the soil.


RR3/93

Cooperative Extension work in Agriculture and Home Economics, State of Indiana, Purdue University and U.S. Department of Agriculture cooperating: H.A. Wadsworth, Director, West Lafayette, IN. Issued in furtherance of the acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914. The Cooperative Extension Service of Purdue University is an equal opportunity/equal access institution.

Fri, 14 Aug 2020 20:12:00 -0500 text/html https://www.extension.purdue.edu/extmedia/AY/AY-238.html
Competitive Analysis

Competitive Analysis Definition:

Identifying your competitors and evaluating their strategies to determine their strengths and weaknesses relative to those of your own product or service

A competitive analysis is a critical part of your company marketing plan. With this evaluation, you can establish what makes your product or service unique--and therefore what attributes you play up in order to attract your target market.

Evaluate your competitors by placing them in strategic groups according to how directly they compete for a share of the customer's dollar. For each competitor or strategic group, list their product or service, its profitability, growth pattern, marketing objectives and assumptions, current and past strategies, organizational and cost structure, strengths and weaknesses, and size (in sales) of the competitor's business. Answer questions such as:

  • Who are your competitors?
  • What products or services do they sell?
  • What is each competitor's market share?
  • What are their past strategies?
  • What are their current strategies?
  • What type of media are used to market their products or services?
  • How many hours per week do they purchase to advertise through the media used in this market?
  • What are each competitor's strengths and weaknesses?
  • What potential threats do your competitors pose?
  • What potential opportunities do they make available for you?

A quick and easy way to compare your product or service with similar ones on the market is to make a competition grid. Down the left side of a piece of paper, write the names of four or five products or services that compete with yours. To help you generate this list, think of what your customers would buy if they didn't buy your product or service.

Across the top of the paper, list the main features and characteristics of each product or service. Include such things as target market, price, size, method of distribution, and extent of customer service for a product. For a service, list prospective buyers, where the service is available, price, website, toll-free phone number, and other features that are relevant. A glance at the competition grid will help you see where your product fits in the overall market.

Wed, 06 Dec 2023 01:00:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.entrepreneur.com/encyclopedia/competitive-analysis
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