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8008 Exam III: Risk Management Frameworks

Exam Details for 8008 Exam III: Risk Management Frameworks:

Number of Questions: The exam consists of multiple-choice questions, with a total of approximately 90 questions.

Time Limit: The total time allocated for the exam is 3 hours.

Passing Score: The passing score for the exam varies and is determined by the certifying body or organization offering the exam.

Exam Format: The exam is typically conducted in a proctored environment, either in-person or online.

Course Outline:

1. Risk Management Principles:
- Introduction to risk management
- Risk identification and assessment
- Risk response strategies
- Risk monitoring and reporting

2. Risk Governance and Culture:
- Roles and responsibilities of risk management stakeholders
- Risk appetite and tolerance
- Risk culture and ethics
- Board and senior management oversight

3. Risk Management Frameworks:
- COSO Enterprise Risk Management Framework
- ISO 31000 Risk Management Framework
- Other industry-specific risk frameworks
- Integration of risk management with strategic planning and decision-making

4. Risk Assessment and Analysis:
- Quantitative and qualitative risk assessment techniques
- Probability and impact analysis
- Scenario analysis and stress testing
- Risk correlation and aggregation

5. Risk Mitigation and Control:
- Risk treatment options and strategies
- Risk transfer, avoidance, acceptance, and reduction
- Control design and implementation
- Monitoring and effectiveness of risk controls

Exam Objectives:

1. Understand the principles and fundamentals of risk management.
2. Demonstrate knowledge of risk governance and culture.
3. Understand various risk management frameworks and their application.
4. Apply risk assessment and analysis techniques.
5. Understand risk mitigation and control strategies.

Exam Syllabus:

The exam syllabus covers the following topics:

1. Risk Management Principles
- Introduction to risk management
- Risk identification and assessment
- Risk response strategies
- Risk monitoring and reporting

2. Risk Governance and Culture
- Roles and responsibilities of risk management stakeholders
- Risk appetite and tolerance
- Risk culture and ethics
- Board and senior management oversight

3. Risk Management Frameworks
- COSO Enterprise Risk Management Framework
- ISO 31000 Risk Management Framework
- Other industry-specific risk frameworks
- Integration of risk management with strategic planning

4. Risk Assessment and Analysis
- Quantitative and qualitative risk assessment techniques
- Probability and impact analysis
- Scenario analysis and stress testing
- Risk correlation and aggregation

5. Risk Mitigation and Control
- Risk treatment options and strategies
- Risk transfer, avoidance, acceptance, and reduction
- Control design and implementation
- Monitoring and effectiveness of risk controls
Exam III: Risk Management Frameworks
PRMIA Management exam

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Exam III: Risk Management Frameworks
Question: 95
Which of the following are considered properties of a ‘coherent’ risk measure:
I. Monotonicity
II. Homogeneity
III. Translation Invariance
IV. Sub-additivity
A. II and III
B. II and IV
C. I and III
D. All of the above
Answer: B
All of the properties described are the properties of a ‘coherent’ risk measure. Monotonicity means that if a portfolio’s
future value is expected to be greater than that of another portfolio, its risk should be lower than that of the other
portfolio. For example, if the expected return of an asset (or portfolio) is greater than that of another, the first asset
must have a lower risk than the other. Another example: between two options if the first has a strike price lower than
the second, then the first option will always have a lower risk if all other parameters are the same. VaR satisfies this
Homogeneity is easiest explained by an example: if you double the size of a portfolio, the risk doubles. The linear
scaling property of a risk measure is called homogeneity. VaR satisfies this property.
Translation invariance means adding riskless assets to a portfolio reduces total risk. So if cash (which has zero standard
deviation and zero correlation with other assets) is added to a portfolio, the risk goes down. A risk measure should
satisfy this property, and VaR does. Sub-additivity means that the total risk for a portfolio should be less than the sum
of its parts. This is a property that VaR satisfies most of the time, but not always. As an example, VaR may not be
sub-additive for portfolios that have assets with discontinuous payoffs close to the VaR cutoff quantile.
Question: 96
Which of the following credit risk models focuses on default alone and ignores credit migration when assessing credit
A. CreditPortfolio View
B. The contingent claims approach
C. The CreditMetrics approach
D. The actuarial approach
Answer: D
The correct answer is Choice ‘d’. The following is a brief description of the major approaches available to model
credit risk, and the analysis that underlies them:
Question: 97
For a US based investor, what is the 10-day value-at risk at the 95% confidence level of a long spot position of EUR
15m, where the volatility of the underlying exchange rate is 16% annually. The current spot rate for EUR is 1.5.
(Assume 250 trading days in a year).
A. 526400
B. 2632000
C. 1184400
D. 5922000
Answer: C
The VaR for a spot FX position is merely a function of the standard deviation of the exchange rate. If V be the value
of the position (in this case, EUR 15m x 1.5 = USD 22.5m), z the appropriate z value associated with the level of
confidence desired, and be the standard deviation of the portfolio, the VaR is given by ZV.
In this case, the 10-day standard deviation is given by SQRT(10/250)*16%. Therefore the VaR is
=1.645*15*1.5*(16%*SQRT(10/250)) = USD 1.1844m. Choice ‘c’ is the correct answer.
Question: 98
Which of the following statements are true:
I. Top down approaches help focus management attention on the frequency and severity of loss events, while bottom
up approaches do not.
II. Top down approaches rely upon high level data while bottom up approaches need firm specific risk data to estimate
III. Scenario analysis can help capture both qualitative and quantitative dimensions of operational risk.
A. III only
B. II and III
C. I only
D. II only
Answer: B
Top down approaches do not consider event frequency and severity, on the other hand they focus on high level
available data such as total capital, income volatility, peer group information on risk capital etc. Bottom up approaches
focus on severity and frequency distributions for events. Statement I is therefore not correct.
Top down approaches do indeed rely upon high level aggregate data and tend to infer operational risk capital
requirements from these. Bottom up approaches look at more detailed firm specific information. Statement II is correct.
Scenario analysis requires estimating losses from risk scenarios, and allows incorporating the judgment and views of
managers in addition to any data that might be available from internal or external loss databases. Statement III is
correct. Therefore Choice ‘b’ is the correct answer.
Question: 99
Which of the following need to be assumed to convert a transition probability matrix for a given time period to the
transition probability matrix for another length of time:
I. Time invariance
II. Markov property
III. Normal distribution
IV. Zero skewness
A. I, II and IV
B. III and IV
C. I and II
D. II and III
Answer: C
Time invariance refers to all time intervals being similar and identical, regardless of the effects of business cycles or
other external events. The Markov property is the assumption that there is no ratings momentum, and that transition
probabilities are dependent only upon where the rating currently is and where it is going to. Where it has come from,
or what the past changes in ratings have been, have no effect on the transition probabilities. Rating agencies generally
provide transition probability matrices for a given period of time, say a year. The risk analyst may need to convert
these into matrices for say 6 months, 2 years or whatever time horizon he or she is interested in. Simplifying
assumptions that allow him to do so using simple matrix multiplication include these two assumptions – time
invariance and the Markov property. Thus Choice ‘c’ is the correct answer. The other choices (normal distribution and
zero skewness) are non-sensical in this context.
Question: 100
The CDS rate on a defaultable bond is approximated by which of the following expressions:
A. Hazard rate / (1 – Recovery rate)
B. Loss given default x Default hazard rate
C. Credit spread x Loss given default
D. Hazard rate x Recovery rate
Answer: B
The CDS rate is approximated by the [Loss given default x Default hazard rate]. Thus Choice ‘b’ is the correct answer.
Note that this is also equal to the credit spread on the reference bond over the risk free rate. Therefore credit spreads
and CDS rates are generally the same. Also, ‘loss given default’ is nothing but (1 – Recovery rate). This can be
substituted in the formula for the credit spread to get an alternative expression that directly refers to the recovery rate.
Therefore all other choices are incorrect.
Question: 101
Which of the following steps are required for computing the aggregate distribution for a UoM for operational risk once
loss frequency and severity curves have been estimated:
I. Simulate number of losses based on the frequency distribution
II. Simulate the dollar value of the losses from the severity distribution
III. Simulate random number from the copula used to model dependence between the UoMs
IV. Compute dependent losses from aggregate distribution curves
A. I and II
B. III and IV
C. None of the above
D. All of the above
Answer: A
A recap would be in order here: calculating operational risk capital is a multi-step process. First, we fit curves to
estimate the parameters to our chosen distribution types for frequency (eg, Poisson), and severity (eg, lognormal). Note
that these curves are fitted at the UoM level – which is the lowest level of granularity at which modeling is carried out.
Since there are many UoMs, there are are many frequency and severity distributions. However what we are interested
in is the loss distribution for the entire bank from which the 99.9th percentile loss can be calculated.
From the multiple frequency and severity distributions we have calculated, this becomes a two step process:
– Step 1: Calculate the aggregate loss distribution for each UoM. Each loss distribution is based upon and underlying
frequency and severity distribution.
– Step 2: Combine the multiple loss distributions after considering the dependence between the different UoMs. The
‘dependence’ recognizes that the various UoMs are not completely independent, ie the loss distributions are not
additive, and that there is a sort of diversification benefit in the sense that not all types of losses can occur at once and
the joint probabilities of the different losses make the sum less than the sum of the parts.
Step 1 requires simulating a number, say n, of the number of losses that occur in a given year from a frequency
distribution. Then n losses are picked from the severity distribution, and the total loss for the year is a summation of
these losses. This becomes one data point. This process of simulating the number of losses and then identifying that
number of losses is carried out a large number of times to get the aggregate loss distribution for a UoM.
Step 2 requires taking the different loss distributions from Step 1 and combining them considering the dependence
between the events. The correlations between the losses are described by a ‘copula’, and combined together
mathematically to get a single loss distribution for the entire bank. This allows the 99.9th percentile loss to be
Question: 102
Which of the following are valid techniques used when performing stress testing based on hypothetical test scenarios:
I. Modifying the covariance matrix by changing asset correlations
II. Specifying hypothetical shocks
III. Sensitivity analysis based on changes in selected risk factors
IV. Evaluating systemic liquidity risks
A. I, II, III and IV
B. II, III and IV
C. I, II and III
D. I and II
Answer: D
Each of these represent valid techniques for performing stress testing and building stress scenarios. Therefore d is the
correct answer. In practice, elements of each of these techniques is used depending upon the portfolio and the exact
Question: 103
For identical mean and variance, which of the following distribution assumptions will provide a higher estimate of
VaR at a high level of confidence?
A. A distribution with kurtosis = 8
B. A distribution with kurtosis = 0
C. A distribution with kurtosis = 2
D. A distribution with kurtosis = 3
Answer: A
A fat tailed distribution has more weight in the tails, and therefore at a high level of confidence the VaR estimate will
be higher for a distribution with heavier tails. At relatively lower levels of confidence however, the situation is
reversed as the heavier tailed distribution will have a VaR estimate lower than a thinner tailed distribution.
A higher level of kurtosis implies a ‘peaked’ distribution with fatter tails. Among the given choices, a distribution with
kurtosis equal to 8 will have the heaviest tails, and therefore a higher VaR estimate. Choice ‘a’ is therefore the correct
answer. Also refer to the tutorial about VaR and fat tails.
Question: 104
Which of the following measures can be used to reduce settlement risks:
A. escrow arrangements using a central clearing house
B. increasing the timing differences between the two legs of the transaction
C. providing for physical delivery instead of netted cash settlements
D. all of the above
Answer: C
increasing the timing differences between the two legs of the transaction will increase settlement risk and not reduce it.
Using escrow arrangements, such as central clearing houses to settle transactions (eg the DTCC in the United States)
reduces settlement risk. Cash settlements based on netting arrangements reduce settlement risk, while physical delivery
combined with gross cash payments increase it. Therefore Choice ‘a’ is the correct answer.
Question: 105
The standard error of a Monte Carlo simulation is:
A. Zero
B. The same as that for a lognormal distribution
C. Proportional to the inverse of the square root of the sample size
D. None of the above
Answer: C
When we do a Monte Carlo simulation, the statistic we obtain (eg, the expected price) is an estimate of the real
variable. The difference between the real value (which would be what we would get if we had access to the entire
population) and that estimated by the Monte Carlo simulation is measured by the ‘standard error’, which is the
standard deviation of the difference between the ‘real’ value and the simulated value (ie, the ‘error’).
As we increase the number of draws in a Monte Carlo simulation, the closer our estimate will be to the true value of
the variable we are trying to estimate. But increasing the sample size does not reduce the error in a linear way, ie
doubling the sample size does not halve the error, but reduces it by the inverse of the square root of the sample size. So
if we have a sample size of 1000, going up to a sample size of 100,000 will reduce the standard error by a factor of 10
(and not 100), ie, SQRT(1/100) = 1/10. In other words, standard error is proportional to 1/N, where N is the sample
Therefore Choice ‘c’ is correct and the others are incorrect.
Question: 106
If the 1-day VaR of a portfolio is $25m, what is the 10-day VaR for the portfolio?
A. $7.906m $79.06m
B. $250m
C. Cannot be determined without the confidence level being specified
Answer: B
The 10-day VaR is = $25m x SQRT(10) = $79.06m. Choice ‘b’ is the correct answer.
Question: 107
Which of the following are elements of ‘group risk’:
I. Market risk
II. Intra-group exposures
III. Reputational contagion
IV. Complex group structures
A. II, III and IV
B. II and III
C. I and IV
D. I and II
Answer: A
The term ‘group risk’ has been defined in the FSA document 08/24 on stress testing as the risk that a firm may be
adversely affected by an occurrence (financial or non-financial) in another group entity or an occurrence that affects
ther group as a whole.
These risks may occur through:
– reputational contagion,
– financial contagion,
– leveraging,
– double or multiple gearing,
– concentrations and large exposures (particularly intra-group).
Thus, the insurance sector may be considered a group, and a firm may suffer just because another group firm has had
losses or reputational issues.
The FSA statement goes on to identify some elements of group risk as follows:
– intra-group exposures (credit or operational exposures through outsourcing or service arrangements, as well as more
standard business exposures);
– concentration risks (from credit, market or insurance risks which could put a strain on capital resources across
entities simultaneously);
– contagion (reputational damage, operational or financial pressures); and
– complex group structures (with dependencies, complex split of responsibilities and accountabilities).
Therefore Choice ‘a’ is the correct answer and the rest of the choices are incorrect.
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PRMIA Management exam - BingNews Search results PRMIA Management exam - BingNews Project Management Professional (PMP)® Exam Preparation
Quick Facts
Online Yes
Format Instructor-led
Course Fee $1,195
CEUs 3.5
Course Availability
Two times per year
Time to Complete
90-day access
You should already be familiar with the content of the PMBOK® Guide before enrolling. If you feel like you need a refresher on the content of the PMBOK® Guide, taking the Project Management Essentials course first is strongly suggested.

PMP® Exam Preparation is an in-depth, live, virtual course offered by Purdue University Online. This course follows our Project Management Essentials course. Some learners also complete the Agile Certificate Online Course before taking this exam preparation course.

This course offering assumes you qualify to take the PMP Exam according to Project Management Institute (PMI) criteria, which includes being an experienced project manager (minimum 36 months of experience leading projects within the past eight years, with a four-year degree).

The PMP exam also requires you to have 35 hours of project management education, which this course fulfills.

You should already be familiar with the content of the PMBOK® Guide before enrolling. If you feel like you need a refresher on the content of the PMBOK® Guide, taking the Project Management Essentials course first is strongly suggested.


To learn more about Purdue University’s online PMP® Exam Preparation course and , fill out this form. You can also call (888) 390-0499 to speak to one of our program advisors.

* All Fields are Required. Your Privacy is Protected.

Purdue University respects your right to privacy. By submitting this form, you consent to receive emails and calls from a representative of Purdue University, which may include the use of automated technology. Consent is needed to contact you, but is not a requirement to register or enroll.

Are you enrolling from outside the U.S.? Click here.

Course Overview

PMP Exam Preparation is a live, virtual course based on the PMBOK® Guide.

Enrollment includes 90-day access to all of the course material, which is 100% aligned to the Project Management Institute’s PMP® Exam Prep content. Purdue also provides complimentary 90-day access to the PMtraining™ online practice test website (a $59 value).


PMI’s PMP exam consists of 180 multiple-choice, multiple response, matching, hotspot and limited fill-in-the-blank questions. The exam is demanding and learners must engage in independent study following the course to pass.

Only individuals who pass PMI’s PMP exam are officially certified as a Project Management Professional®. A certificate of achievement from Purdue University, however, is awarded to learners who successfully complete the PMP exam prep course.

Tue, 17 May 2022 12:27:00 -0500 en text/html
Gain Buy-In. Manage Risk. Scale Your Career.

Purdue University developed its online Project Management Essentials, Project Management Professional (PMP)® Exam Preparation and Agile courses as a series to help learners effectively plan, orchestrate and control complex projects in their organizations. The courses also help learners prepare to pursue certification from the Project Management Institute (PMI) if they choose.

Project Management Essentials is the first step for professionals who seek fundamental knowledge and skills to immediately apply to their projects and advance their careers. It also helps learners earn the educational hours required by PMI for PMP certification.

Many of our learners follow up Project Management Essentials with the Agile Certificate Online Course and finally the PMP Exam Preparation course. This course is an in-depth review designed for experienced project managers who want to gain a firm understanding of PMP exam content, identify areas of opportunity for strengthening their grasp of PM principles and develop a comprehensive study plan.

The Agile Certificate Online Course can be completed at any point in the series, or as a stand-alone course. It offers a deep dive into the Agile methodology and commonly used frameworks. Learners gain an understanding of cutting-edge practices they can immediately apply to their careers. They also earn the prerequisite contact hours in Agile training required by the PMI and will be prepared to sit for the PMI Agile Certified Professional (PMI-ACP)® or PMP certification exam.

Employers worldwide consider PMP certification the industry standard for project managers. As a result, the knowledge, skills and experience required for PMP certification are transferable across industries and continents.

Sat, 26 Feb 2022 16:29:00 -0600 en text/html
How To Get PMP Certification: Is PMP Certification Worth It?

Editorial Note: We earn a commission from partner links on Forbes Advisor. Commissions do not affect our editors' opinions or evaluations.

Project Management Professional (PMP)® certification can make you stand out against the competition in the field of project management. If you’ve wondered how to get PMP certification, know that you must first complete work experience, training courses and an exam.

But is PMP certification worth it? In this article, we’ll explore what it takes to get certified, how much you might have to pay and how PMP certification can help you level up your project management career.

What Is PMP Certification?

Professional certifications verify your career skills and allow you to learn more about important concepts and industry best practices that can help in your day-to-day operations.

PMP certification is the most widely recognized in the world of project management. It’s available through the Project Management Institute (PMI), which publishes the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK). The PMBOK is the Holy Grail of knowledge when it comes to project management concepts.

PMP certification demonstrates a strong understanding of the concepts set forth in the PMBOK and other reference materials. This designation can help you distinguish yourself from your peers and gain respected credentials in your field. Along the way, you’ll learn about concepts like Agile, waterfall project scheduling, leadership and business management.

How to Sign Up for PMP Certification

The first step to earning PMP certification is to begin work in the field of project management. PMP certification requires months of work experience. Precise requirements vary depending on your level of education. If you have a bachelor’s degree, you’ll need 36 months of relevant project experience to qualify for the PMP credential. Without a degree, you must complete 60 months of experience.

If you have this work experience or are working toward it, the next step is to complete at least 35 hours of formal PMP training, also called “contact hours,” or hold a current CAPM certification. You can complete contact hours through a PMP certification course, which you may take online or in person. These courses take a few weeks to a few months to complete, and they teach the concepts you should understand before taking the PMP certification exam.

Below, we’ll discuss how to get a PMP certification in more detail, including prerequisites and PMP exam costs.

PMP Certification Requirements

You must accomplish a certain amount of professional experience and formal training before you qualify for PMP certification.

If you have completed high school or an associate degree but not a bachelor’s, PMP certification requirements are as follows.

  • 60 months leading projects
  • 35 contact hours

If you have a bachelor’s degree, you must complete the following before pursuing PMP certification.

  • 36 months leading projects
  • 35 contact hours

PMP Cost

Most PMP certification training programs (through which you can earn your contact hours) range in cost from around $300 to around $3,000. Courses offered through well-known colleges and universities tend to cost more, but many also offer for-credit programs that result in undergraduate or graduate certificates. Consider a program that holds GAC accreditation when searching for courses. Free PMP certification training is available through some resources, but usually only for short trial periods.

To sit for the exam, the cost is $405 for PMI members or $575 for nonmembers.

PMP Time Commitment

How long does it take to get PMP certification? The most time-consuming part of the PMP certification process is completing the required work experience. Start documenting your work experience as soon as you consider applying for PMP certification. Once you get that experience under your belt, the rest of the certification process involves studying and scheduling your test. The time spent on this step can vary depending on your schedule and study habits, location and testing center availability.

Most PMP certification training courses take only a few weeks to a few months to complete. After that, it’s up to you how much time you spend studying for the certification exam. Retakes cost $275 for PMI members and $375 for nonmembers, so it’s best to go into the exam as prepared as possible.

PMP Renewal Costs

Once you’ve passed the PMP exam, you must complete a certain level of continuing education to keep your certification active. The renewal fee, due every three years, is $60 for PMI members or $150 for nonmembers.

Is PMP Certification Worth It?

To determine whether PMP certification is worth it to you, weigh the costs of certification against the potential benefits. Since we’ve listed the costs of PMP certification above, you likely have a good idea of the investment you’d need to make to get certified. Now, it’s time to consider your potential return on that investment.

Benefits of PMP certification

  • Salary increase. PMPs in the U.S. earn about 32% more than their non-certified peers in project management.
  • Greater respect in the industry. The Project Management Institute is the leading organization for project management knowledge and the publisher of the PMBOK. Earning PMP certification through PMI carries lots of weight in the project management industry.
  • Greater career opportunities. Holding PMP certification should make you more marketable when it comes to looking for better or different positions in project management.

Consider Your Career

Are you looking to make a career change? Move into a higher role in your current team? In either case, PMP certification could be just what you need to level up your career. As part of the certification process, you’ll learn industry best practices that you can start incorporating into your day-to-day work life immediately.

Look at Earning Potential vs. Certification Cost

According to PMI, PMP-certified professionals in the U.S. earn a median annual salary of $123,000, compared to a median of $93,000 for their non-certified colleagues. This translates to a 32% salary increase for certified PMPs.

Multiply your current salary by 1.32 to estimate your potential PMP certification salary. You can then weigh that salary increase against the cost of PMP certification training and the PMP exam. This cost vs. benefit analysis can help you understand whether PMP certification would be worth it for you.

Mon, 11 Dec 2023 23:13:00 -0600 Christin Perry en-US text/html
Nutrient Management Planning Resources


Becoming a Delaware Nutrient Consultant

Step 1: Attend four Delaware Nutrient Management Certification Sessions. Initial certification sessions are offered twice a year and the exam is offered three times a year.

Step 2: Pass the Delaware Nutrient Management Consultant Exam. The Nutrient Consultant Exam is also one of three exams you must pass to become a Certified Crop Adviser in the Mid-Atlantic Region. The exam consists of 100 multiple choice questions and you have two hours to complete the exam. Study materials are provided below to help you prepare for the exam. There is no fee to take the exam. On the day of the exam, study materials are not allowed in the exam area and you are required to show a photo I.D. prior to taking the exam.

Note: Delaware does not test on biosolids so if you plan to write Nutrient Management Plans for biosolids in another state, you should take the Nutrient Management exam in that state.

Step 3: Pay a $100 fee to Delaware Department of Agriculture annually. This fee is only paid after passing the exam.

Step 4: Maintain your certification by acquiring five hours of continuing education every year. Delaware Nutrient Consultants are also required to write a Nutrient Management Plan once every three years.


Reciprocity with Maryland

There is a reciprocal agreement between the Delaware Department of Agriculture and the Maryland Department of Agriculture. Nutrient Consultants who are certified in Maryland and in good standing with the Maryland Nutrient Management Program may seek reciprocity by attending Delaware Nutrient Management Certification Session I and submitting an application to the Delaware Department of Agriculture with a copy of their Maryland Nutrient Management Consultant Certificate.


Nutrient Consultant Competency Areas

You should review and be familiar with the information in the Nutrient Management and the Soil and Water Management Competency Areas.


Nutrient Management Planning Tools



Study Materials

Thu, 13 Aug 2020 06:41:00 -0500 en text/html
Best Rental Property Management Software

Designed with single-family home landlords in mind, Propertyware has earned its place as our best rental property management software for single-family homes.

Propertyware is owned by RealPage, a Texas-born company founded in 1998 that currently serves more than 12,400 clients from North America, Europe, and Asia. All members of Propertyware's management team have over 20 years of experience working in real estate, which means users get software designed by people who understand the industry and how it works.

Focused on single-family home property management, Propertyware is fairly simple to use, without the complicated features commercial management software can have, making it the best choice for single-family home management. You'll benefit from Propertyware's management features, especially if you're a single-family home landlord. It has everything a landlord needs, including online rent collection, accounting, maintenance requests, vacant property marketing with leasing agents, marketing with listing syndication, tenant screening services, lead tracking, and follow-up, and a portal for vendors. 

Propertyware currently has three pricing tiers: Basic, Plus, and Premium, with costs starting at $1 per unit, $1.50 per unit, and $2 per unit, respectively. With the Basic plan, you can run reports; advertise your vacancies; manage the properties with owner and tenant portals; and streamline maintenance work orders, accounting, tenant screening, and rent payments.

The Plus plan adds conveniences like two-way text messaging, eSignatures, and inspections. At the Premium level, you can manage your maintenance projects and add portals for your vendors. Each respective tier has a minimum monthly fee of $250, $350, and $450, so to optimize your unit costs, this program is best for managers of at least 250 homes.

Integrations for efficiency include DocuSign, but Propertyware has chosen a primarily in-house approach for marketing, lead generation, and tenant screening rather than integrating with third-party software.

Tue, 09 Feb 2021 02:33:00 -0600 en text/html
CAT exam preparation: Here are the most top scoring sections of this management entrance test Regarded as one of India's most challenging competitive exams, the Common Admission Test (CAT) is conducted annually in November by various IIMs, with IIM Lucknow serving as the organizing body this year. CAT serves as the entrance exam for prestigious Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs). Additionally, numerous management institutes and universities offering MBA programmes also consider CAT exam scores for admission into their respective programmes.
The CAT exam consists of three sections, viz. Verbal Ability and Reading Comprehension (VARC), Data Interpretation and Logical Reasoning (DILR) and Quantitative Ability (QA).
Each section has a 40-minute duration, within which candidates are required to finish that section. The total duration of CAT examination is 120 minutes, or 2 hours.
Qualifying the CAT exam requires dedicated preparation by the candidates for a prolonged period of time. Paired with that, effective revision is also required for scoring high on each of the sections. Here is a low-down on section-wise top scoring topics that you should prepare for.
Verbal Ability and Reading Comprehension (VARC)
The VARC section is considered to be one of the relatively easier topics to prepare for, and gives the candidate the potential to score the most. At the same time, it requires the candidate to have thorough practice of the topics in verbal ability, and enhanced reading skills for the reading comprehension questions. Here are some parts within the section that require dedicated focus.
  • Emphasise on reading comprehension: It is regarded as one of the most scoring part; aspirants are required to inculcate the habit of reading editorials and newspaper articles. This will help in grasping the concepts when a comprehension paragraph is given in the CAT exam.
  • Para jumble, odd one out: This part of the VARC section comes with significant opportunities for the candidates to score. This requires minimal effort to prepare; Improving on your reading ability will give you an advantage over other candidates. Practising this daily will improve on your speed of processing the given information on the comprehension paragraph. This helps improve managing time while attempting the questions in the section.
Read Also: CAT Score vs Percentile 2023
Data Interpretation & Logical Reasoning (DILR)
Focus on practising non-traditional type of sets. The trend for the past few years has indicated that the questions are less data-intensive, and more logic based. This gives an opportunity to score higher, if the practice is focussed on unconventional problem-solving exercises, and different kinds of puzzles.
Important topics include:
  • Arrangements
  • Games and Tournaments
  • Puzzles
  • Venn diagrams (maxima-minima)
  • Quantitative LR
  • Spider charts
  • Graphs & charts
Quantitative Aptitude (QA)
Thorough understanding of fundamental concepts during practice sessions can help in last-minute revision and reduce exam time. The QA section has numerous questions and high potential for scoring due to the straightforward nature of questions. Here is a list of sub-topics you should focus on.
Ratio & Proportions; Average & Percentages; Simple & Compound Interest; Time, Speed & Distance; Time & Work
Linear Equations; Quadratic Equations; Polynomials
Geometry: 3D Solids, such as cones, cylinders, spheres, and 2D Geometry, which includes shapes like triangles, circles, squares
Tue, 21 Nov 2023 03:08:00 -0600 en text/html
Best No-Medical-Exam Life Insurance Companies

Final Verdict

All of the companies on this list represent good options for getting life insurance without a medical exam. All are A+ rated or better for financial strength and have received fewer complaints than expected when averaged over a three-year period. If you don’t need more than $3 million in coverage and are 50 or younger, any company on this list could be a good fit. But if you’re over 50 and looking for a death benefit of more than $1 million, you can rule out Nationwide. If you’re over 60, your only option for high-coverage no-medical-exam life insurance is Penn Mutual. And regardless of your age, Penn Mutual is your only option if you need a death benefit greater than $5 million and don’t want to take an exam.

If you’re looking for term coverage, try Penn Mutual or Pacific Life; for dividends, Penn Mutual or Guardian. If you want free living benefits, look to Nationwide. And if you’d like a wellness plan with your life insurance, John Hancock delivers.

How To Choose a No-Medical-Exam Life Insurance Policy

Term life insurance is designed to last for a specific number of years, such as 30, and then expire. Permanent life insurance is designed to last your entire lifetime, and is therefore more expensive than term. You may also want to combine term and permanent policies to have a higher-coverage term policy during your working years or while you’re raising a family, and then a lower-coverage permanent policy that will kick in once the term coverage expires.

Term policies let you choose the length of the term (a 40-year term is the longest we’ve seen), and often provide the option to convert your term coverage to permanent. Permanent policies have a cash value, which may be accessed via withdrawals and loans.

Once you’ve figured out your budget and the general type of coverage you need, you should begin to get quotes from financially stable companies with track records of good customer satisfaction. 

If you want a no-exam life insurance policy, it may be helpful to know that most of the 91 companies we reviewed offer some sort of policy that doesn’t require an exam. You’re best off first finding a good company (or a few you like), and then seeing what kind of policy you can get without an exam. This list and our rankings of the best life insurance companies are both good places to start. And be sure to compare multiple quotes for no-exam life insurance because some policies are cheaper than others (depending on the type of no-exam underwriting used).

A number of companies offer life insurance policies without requiring a medical exam, but you’ll generally be eligible for the lowest premiums with those that ask thorough health questions on the application. 

More Ratings of Top Life Insurance Companies

Frequently Asked Questions

  • Most any type of policy is eligible for no-exam underwriting. It used to be that if you wanted to skip the exam, only low-coverage insurance policies were available to you. These are still available and sold as burial or funeral insurance, or guaranteed-issue policies. But now, insurers have a number of sophisticated means by which to collect health and other information, so they don’t need to rely on your exam. Plus, it costs them money to administer it and time to receive and review the results. No-exam underwriting allows insurance carriers to issue life policies faster, which is often good for both the customer and the insurer.

    So whether you’re looking for term or permanent coverage, a whole life policy or an indexed universal life policy, it’s available somewhere without a medical exam. But not all companies offer no-exam life insurance on all or even any of their policies, so you’ll need to do some research to find one that does. (The companies in the list above are an excellent start.) The one caveat is that not everyone is eligible for no-exam underwriting. If you have health issues that raise red flags for the insurance company, you may be required to undergo a medical screening to complete your application.

  • Yes, if it's a policy with a cash value. No-exam life insurance policies are just like regular life insurance policies. The only difference is that a medical screening is not required during the application process. Once approved, the policy functions just as it would had you taken an exam. So if you’ve purchased a permanent life insurance policy that builds a cash value, that cash value will be available to you, subject to any surrender period or other standard policy conditions.

  • Choosing the best life insurance policy for you depends on your life insurance needs. How much coverage do you need? (Ideally, you’ll get enough to pay off your debts and replace your income, at the very least.) How long do you need it for? Your needs may change once your kids are grown and your home is paid off, for instance. The next question to ask is, how much premium can you afford?


In order to compile our list of the best no-medical-exam life insurance companies, we developed a comprehensive life insurance methodology. We started off by researching what consumers want from life insurance companies, and for that, we looked to third-party consumer studies, including J.D. Power’s 2021 U.S. Life Insurance New Business Study and the 2021 Insurance Barometer Study, by Life Happens and LIMRA.

With those findings in mind, we gathered more than 50 data points on 91 life insurance companies, including ratings for financial strength, customer satisfaction, and customer complaints, as well as information about years in business, online tools, no-exam options, dividends, maximum issue ages, and available riders. 

Our review process gave preference to companies with solid financials, few customer complaints, high no-exam coverage amounts available, high-issue ages for no-exam coverage, and a broad product portfolio. Companies received ratings boosts for online resources, including online quotes and live chat, and included living benefit riders. We ranked each company according to the following categories and weights.

  • 28%: No-med-exam availability and features
  • 20% Policy types and features
  • 15%: Financial stability 
  • 15%: Customer satisfaction
  • 13%: Ease of application
  • 9%: Online resources

To finalize our list, we compared individual offerings between top companies by considering ratings from third parties such as AM Best and J.D. Power, and delving deeper into product specifics—including cost and the availability of dividends. We used this research to determine the best no-medical-exam life insurance companies.

Mon, 12 Oct 2020 06:49:00 -0500 en text/html
List of Management Entrance Exams in India 2024

What is MBA Full Form: Course, Subjects, Purpose 

The full form of MBA is Masters in Business Administration. MBA is a management entrance exam that is conducted for admission into the top MBA colleges in India. It is a two-year course that is opted by those who are seeking to build their career in the Management field. MBA courses tend to enhance a candidate’s strategic thinking, leadership abilities, problem-solving skills, etc. A wide range of MBA exams are conducted in India such as CAT, MAT, XAT, IBSAt, etc. Candidates are selected through a Written Ability Test or WAT and a Personal Interview or PI. 

Top MBA Exams in India 2024

The following table depicts the top MBA exams that are conducted in India for admission into MBA colleges. Check the table below to know the list of MBA exams with exam date. 

Types of MBA Entrance Exams

The MBA exams in India are conducted at three different levels depending on the institute for PGDM and Executive MBA course. The candidates can apply for MBA exam at State level, National level and Institute level. Here is a list of some of the exams that are conducted at State, National and Institute levels below. 


Entrance test for MBA

National Level

  • CAT
  • CMAT
  • XAT
  • SNAP
  • NMAT by GMAC

State Level


Institute/University Level

  • B-MAT

Popular MBA Entrance Exams in India 2024

The most popular MBA entrance exams that are conducted in India have been explained below. 

CAT Exam

CAT is a national-level entrance exam that is conducted by any one of the IIMs on a rotational basis. CAT 2023 exam was conducted by IIM Lucknow. The scores obtained by the candidates in CAT exam is accepted by all the IIMs as well as many other top B schools in India. CAT exam consists of three sections namely- verbal ability & reading comprehension (VARC), data interpretation & logical reasoning (DILR), and quantitative aptitude (QA) for a duration of 2 Hours. You can check the following important links for the CAT exam below. 

XAT Exam

Xavier School of Management, Jamshedpur conducts Xavier Aptitude Test (XAT) every year for admission into MBA/PGDM programs. XAT is a computer-based test that consists of five sections namely, Decision Making, Verbal & Logical Ability, Quantitative Ability & Data Interpretation and General Knowledge and Essay Writing for a duration of 3 Hours 30 Minutes. Check the following table to know more.


ICFAI Business School Aptitude Test or IBSAT is conducted at institute-level by ICFAI Foundation for Higher Education. The marks obtained in the IBSAT exam is used for admission to MBA and PhD programmes at nine ICFAI Business School (IBS) campuses located in Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Dehradun, Gurgaon, Jaipur, Kolkata, Mumbai and Pune. The exam consists of four sections that are Verbal Ability, Reading Comprehension, Quantitative Aptitude and Data Adequacy & Data Interpretation. Check the following table to know more:


Maharashtra Common Entrance Test or MAH-CET is a state-level MBA entrance exam which is conducted by the Directorate of Technical Education, Maharashtra. Candidates who qualify MAH CET MBA exam are eligible for admission into MBA colleges in Maharashtra for management courses such as MBA, MMS, PGDBM and PGDM. MAH CET MBA exam consists of three sections namely Verbal Ability and Reading Comprehension, Quantitative Aptitude and Logical / Abstract Reasoning. The exam consists a total of 200 questions that has to be completed in 150 minutes. Check the important articles related to MAH CET MBA exam below. 

Eligibility Criteria to Appear for MBA Exam

The basic eligibility criteria to appear for an MBA exam is done if the candidate fulfils the educational qualification. The candidates have to be a Graduate from a recognised university. Those in the final year of graduation are also eligible to apply for an MBA exam. The minimum percentage requirement in Graduation is 50% by some of the popular MBA entrance exam conducting institutes.

Wed, 05 Apr 2023 10:54:00 -0500 text/html
CAT 2023 tomorrow, know how to optimise time management during exam No result found, try new keyword!Indian Institute of Management, IIM Lucknow will conduct CAT 2023 examination on November 26, 2023. The Common Admission Test will be conducted in three sessions. The duration of the test will be ... Fri, 24 Nov 2023 20:52:00 -0600 en-us text/html 10 Best Content Management Software (CMS) Systems Of 2024

A content management system (CMS) is software that helps you create and modify digital content, including text, audio, video and infographics for a website, even without coding knowledge. CMS platforms make creating and uploading content easy thanks to their selection of themes and templates. The content management software handles all the technical processes for you. So, instead of spending much time creating web pages or storing images and videos, you have the time to focus on creating text content or even other activities that can help grow your business.

The best content management systems make it easy for multiple teams, such as content strategy, content writing, marketing and analytics teams, to work together on your website content. You can also integrate with other third-party software that your business uses, such as digital asset management, content marketing and analytics. That way, you can gain complete website management.

Types of CMS

As technology advances, several types of CMS emerge. Though sometimes similar, these content management systems differ in functionality, capability, how they’re run and even the types of users they serve. But these are the common ones.

All-in-One Website Builders

These are similar to turnkey systems that include all you need to get started and manage your site and content. The best website builders include intuitive CMS systems that anyone can use to manage SEO, a blog, files, the look and feel of your site and the backend functionality. These are ideal for new and small business owners who don’t require a ton of customization.

Open Source CMS Systems

An open source CMS system gives you far more freedom and control over the look and feel and functionality of your site. The trade-off is that it’s much harder to learn and use. These are better suited to web developers or large businesses that need or want a custom solution and can afford the higher cost of development.

Cloud-Based CMS

A third-party provider hosts a cloud-based CMS, and there are two types: full cloud and partial cloud. Cloud-based CMS types are for businesses that want another to manage their CMS infrastructure either fully or partially. Users cannot customize the full cloud CMS to their needs, but the partial cloud CMS located at each user’s cloud-based server allows alterations through source codes or specific modules. Cloud-based CMS generally requires ongoing support.

Enterprise CMS

Larger institutions often use an enterprise CMS, as it has advanced features and capabilities and supports volumes of content and users. It collects and manages an organization’s unstructured data, including emails and reports, and helps it deliver relevant content to target audiences.

Headless CMS

This type allows you to create and publish content without a front-end user interface. With it, you can manage your content seamlessly, delivering various categories and types of content to web platforms, mobile devices and the Internet of Things (IoT) products.

Thu, 04 Jan 2024 02:37:00 -0600 Amy Nichol Smith en-US text/html

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